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Constangy's Field Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act

Michael D. Malfitano

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NEW ANNUAL PAPERBACK AND eBOOK



Authored By:  Michael D. Malfitano, partner, Constangy Brooks & Smith, LLP


 Daily Business Review Books is releasing their annual: Constangy's Field Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act, authored by the law firm of Constangy Brooks & Smith, LLP. This book will provide Florida attorneys with clarity to the most recent developments under the FLSA's regulations and facilitate a better understanding of:

  • FLSA retaliation claims. Including an analysis of the Supreme Court's decision in Kasten.
  • What courts look for in granting or denying summary judgment, for plaintiffs and defendants, in an exemption case
  • The continuing battle among the courts on defining the outside sales exemption: who is winning?
  • The latest on coverage issues for the highly compensated employee  exemption
  • Damages for misclassification: how employers are escaping the big hit
  • Failing to plead affirmative defenses:  is all lost?
  • and much more
  • Now issued as an annual paperback and in EPUB format®, Adobe® Digital Editions (pc and mac). The digital edition is in EPUB format, with hyperlinks to the full text of cases, statutes and other authoritative content for all your legal research needs.
  • Your purchase today includes this title in EPUB format. The eBook is viewable on Apple iPad or iPhone, SONY Reader, Barnes & Noble NOOK
  • NOTE:Credit card will be charged at time of order. Product cannot be returned if eBook has been downloaded. For further information please call 1-877-256-2472 or email regionaltitles@alm.com

Subscriptions to books are auto-renewed to avoid disruptions in service. Print editions must be returned within 30 days in resalable condition for refund. For downloadable eBook products, a refund will be granted if the eBook has not been downloaded.


  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: Daily Business Review (FL)
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 0
  • ISBN: 978-1-57625-660-2
  • Pub#/SKU#: FCFG

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  • Michael D. Malfitano

Mike Malfitano is a senior Florida labor attorney who assists employers in problem prevention and legal analysis of complex employment issues. He has represented employers in cases involving every aspect of the employment relationship. He also represents employers in collective bargaining, arbitration, and union avoidance. He counsels employers with respect to Title VII, ADA and FMLA compliance, Wage Hour compliance, employee benefits issues, affirmative action, and in structuring payroll and compensation programs.  Mike is a Managing Partner in Constangy, Brooks & Smith, LLP, a national labor and employment law firm, and is the Office Head of its Tampa Office.  He received his B.S. from the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University, and his law degree from Boston College Law School.  Mike is a frequent lecturer at seminars for both employers and for other lawyers, and he has authored a number of labor law articles and a chapter of a book published by The Florida Bar on Labor Arbitration.  He is actively involved in community affairs, and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Drug Abuse Comprehensive Coordinating Office (DACCO), and The University of Tampa Board of Fellows.  He is listed in The Best Lawyers in America (Woodward/White, Inc.) and Florida Super Lawyers.  He is recognized by Chambers USA as possessing valuable experience in the area and to be "very responsive and very good value."

 


Also by Michael D. Malfitano:
Constangy’s Field Guide to the Americans with Disabilities Act
Constangy's Field Guide to the Family Medical Leave Act

 

Table of Contents

 

Chapter 1: General Regulations...............................1

 

1-1  29CFR § 541.0. Introductory Statement..................1 

1-1:1 Preemption............................................2 

1-1:2 Unclean Hands..........................................3 

1-1:3 Exempt Status as an Affirmative Defense...............4 

1-1:4 Employees v. Independent Contractors...................6 

1-1:5 Interns and the FLSA...................................9 

1-1:6 Coverage of Employer by the FLSA.......................9 

1-1:7 Positions Not Covered by FLSA.........................12 

1-1:8 State Law Breach of Contract Claims 

     and Preemption .......................................14 

1-1:9 Deference to the FLSA and Its Regulations.............14 

1-2  29 CFR § 541.1. Terms Used in Regulations .............16 

1-3  29 CFR § 541.2. Job Titles Insufficient................16 

1-3:1 Role of Job Title....................................17 

1-3:2 Damages for Misclassified Employees...................18 

1-3:3 Value of Well-Defined Job Descriptions...............19 

1-4  29 CFR § 541.3. Scope of the Section 13a)(1)Exemption..19 

1-4:1 Scope of Regulation..................................21 

1-4:2 Police, Firefighters and EMTs.........................22 

1-5  29 CFR § 541.4. Other Laws and Collective 

Bargaining Agreements.......................................23 

1-5:1 Release of FLSA Rights...............................23 

1-5:2 FLSA Claims and Arbitration..........................24 

 

Chapter 2: Executive Employees.............................25

 

2-1 29 CFR § 541.100. General Rule for Executive Employees..25

2-1:1 Revisions to Regulation..............................26

2-1:2 “Management”.........................................27

2-1:3 Department of Labor Commentary........................28

2-1:4 “Particular Weight”..................................28

2-1:5 Public Sector.........................................29

2-2 29 CFR § 541.101. Business Owner........................29

2-2:1 Defining the Employer/Employee Relationship...........29

2-2:2 Salary Basis Test.....................................30

2-3 29 CFR § 541.102.Management............................30

2-3:1 “Primary Duty”........................................31

2-3:2 Five-Part Test for“Management”.......................31

2-3:3 When Less Than 50 Percent of Time IsSpent

     on Exempt Work........................................34

2-3:4 Summary Judgment......................................35

2-3:5 “Manager With Benefits”...............................35

2-3:6 Need for Flexibility When Determining“Management” ....36

2-4 29 CFR § 541.103. Department or Subdivision.............37

2-4:1 Revised Definition of “Department or Subdivision”.....38

2-4:2 Flexibility of Definition.............................38

2-5 29 CFR § 541.104. Two or More Other Employees ..........39

2-5:1 Revision of Regulations...............................40

2-5:2 Practical Application of the Regulation...............40

2-5:3 Keys to Managing Two Employees.......................41

2-5:4 Physical Presence....................................41

2-5:5 Supervision of an Independent Contractor or Volunteer .42

2-5:6 “Leadership”.........................................42

2-6 29 CFR § 541.105. Particular Weight....................43

2-6:1 Revisions to Regulations..............................43

2-6:2 Establishing “Particular Weight”.....................43

     2-6:2.1 What Satisfies the “Particular Weight”

             Requirement ..................................43

     2-6:2.2 What Does Not Satisfy the “Particular Weight                       Requirement”...................................44

     2-6:2.3 Evidence Sufficient to Create a

             Jury Question ................................45

     2-6:2.4 Role of Employee’s Suggestions and

              Recommendations..............................45

2-6:3 Role of Pre-2004 Case Law.............................46

2-7 29 CFR § 541.106. Concurrent Duties....................47

2-7:1 Revisions to Regulations..............................48

2-7:2 Practice Note........................................50

2-7:3 Rejection of Categories of Work......................50

2-7:4 Generalized Approach to Concurrent Duties.............50

 

 

Chapter 3: Administrative Employees.........................53

 

3-1 29 CFR § 541.200. General Rule for Administrative                          Employees.............................................53

3-1:1 Administrative Exemption..............................54

3-1:2 General Business Operations..........................54

3-1:3 Employees Who Consult Manuals or Adhere to Guidelines 55

3-1:4 Department of Labor Commentary........................57

3-2 29 CFR § 541.201. Directly Related to Management

     or General Business Operations........................58

3-2:1 Relating Directly to Management or Business

     Operations ...........................................59

3-2:2 Production v. Staff Work.............................60

3-2:3 Summary Judgment......................................61

3-2:4 Positions That Will Be Exempt........................62

3-3 29 CFR § 541.202. Discretion and Independent Judgment...63

3-3:1 Determining Discretion and Independent Judgment ......66

3-3:2 Rule of Thumb When Determining

     the Administrative Exemption .........................68

3-4 29 CFR § 541.203. Administrative Exemption Examples ....70

3-4:1 Purpose of Regulation................................73

3-4:2 Job Positions That Are Exempt.........................74

     3-4:2.1 Insurance Industry ...........................74

     3-4:2.2 Financial Industry............................75

3-4:3 Other Job Classifications of Interest................76

     3-4:3.1 Administrative Assistants ....................76

     3-4:3.2 Inspectors (Public Employer) .................76

3-5 29 CFR § 541.204. Educational Establishments ...........77

3-5:1 Educational Establishment Exemption Explained ........79

     3-5:1.1 Educational Establishment Analysis............80

     3-5:1.2 Example of Educational Exemption..............80

3-5:2 Application of Regular Administrative

      Exemption in Educational Setting.....................81

 

Chapter 4: Professional Employees..........................83

 

4-1 29 CFR §541.300.General Rule for Professional Employees..83

4-1:1 Intent of Revisions to Regulation....................84

4-1:2 Attempts to Circumvent Payment on Salary Basis........84

4-2 29 CFR § 541.301. Learned Professionals................84

4-2:1 “Customarily Required”...............................89

4-2:2 Job Classifications Under 29 CFR §541.301............93

     4-2:2.1 Chef .........................................93

     4-2:2.2 Paralegals ...................................93

     4-2:2.3 Sales Engineers...............................93

     4-2:2.4 Social Workers and Caseworkers ...............94

     4-2:2.5 Registered Nurses.............................94

     4-2:2.6 Respiratory Therapists........................94

     4-2:2.7 Senior Legal Analyst .........................95

     4-2:2.8 Court Reporter................................95

     4-2:2.9 Assistant Lab Manager.........................95

4-3 29 CFR § 541.302. Creative Professionals ...............95

4-3:1 Revisions to Regulation..............................97

4-3:2 Determining Exempt Status.............................97

4-3:3 Practice Points......................................98

4-4 29 CFR § 541.303.Teachers..............................99

4-4:1 Revision to Regulation...............................100

4-4:2 Discretion and Independent Judgment.................100

4-4:3 Performance of Both Exempt and Nonexempt Duties......101

4-5 29 CFR § 541.304. Practice of Law and Medicine.........101

4-5:1 Applying the Exemption...............................102

4-5:2 Physician’s Assistant...............................102

4-5:3 Attorneys............................................102

 

Chapter 5: Computer Employees..............................103

 

5-1 29 CFR § 541.400. General Rule for Computer Employees..103

5-1:1 Scope of Exemption..................................104

5-1:2 Job Titles Not Included.............................104

5-1:3 Computer Employees and the Highly Compensated

     Employee Exemption...................................105

5-1:4 Unqualified Employees Performing Exempt Tasks .......105

5-1:5 IT Support Personnel.................................106

5-1:6 Computer Consultants.................................106

5-2 29 CFR § 541.401. Computer Manufacture and Repair......107

5-3 29 CFR § 541.402. Executive and Administrative

     Computer Employees...................................107

 

Chapter 6: Outside Sales Employees.........................109

 

6-1 29 CFR § 541.500. General Rule for Outside

     Sales Employees......................................109

6-1:1 Revisions to Regulations.............................110

6-1:2 “Sales” for Charity..................................110

6-1:3 Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives.................110

6-2  29 CFR § 541.501. Making Sales or Obtaining Orders....111 

6-2:1 Interpretation of the Regulation ...................112 

6-2:2 Revisions to the Regulation ........................114 

6-3  29 CFR§541.502.Away From Employer’s Place of Business.114 

6-3:1 Effect of Technology on Outside Sales Exemption ....114 

6-3:2 Determining Whether the Exemption Applies ..........116 

6-3:3 Payment on True Commission Basis ...................117 

6-4  29 CFR § 541.503. Promotion Wo........................117 

6-4:1 “Commitment”........................................118 

6-4:2 Advertising and Marketing ..........................119 

6-5  29 CFR § 541.504. Drivers Who Sell....................119 

 

Chapter 7: Salary Requirements.............................123

 

7-1 29 CFR § 541.600. Amount of Salary Required............123

7-1:1 Salary Basis Test....................................124

7-1:2 Professionals and Salary Basis Test..................125

7-2 29 CFR § 541.601. Highly Compensated Employees.........126

7-2:1 $100,000 Requirement................................128

7-2:2 Computing the $100,000 Requirement...................129

     7-2:2.1 Overtime Liability ..........................130

7-2:3 Exempt Duties........................................131

     7-2:3.1 Exempt Duties and Recruiters.................131

7-3 29 CFR § 541.602. Salary  basis.........................131

7-3:1 Salary Basis Test....................................135

     7-3:1.1 Revisions to Regulations.....................135

7-3:2 What Employers Are Allowed to Do....................136

7-3:3 Deductions for Safety Violations

     and Disciplinary Suspensions ........................139

7-3:4 Disciplinary Suspensions.............................139

     7-3:4.1 Rule Not Carte Blanche to Discipline

             Exempt Employees.............................139

     7-3:4.2 Implementing Policy on Disciplinary

             Suspensions .................................139

     7-3:4.3 Exemption’s Effect of Ability

             to Manage Employees .........................140

7-3:5 Salary Basis Test and Classifications

     in Payroll System ...................................140

7-4 29 CFR § 541.603. Effect of Improper

     Deductions From Salary...............................141

7-4:1 Revisions to Regulations.............................143

7-4:2 Employer Protection Against Improper Deductions......144

7-4:3 Safe Harbor..........................................146

7-4:4 Deductions From Exempt Employee’s Bonus .............146 

7-4:5 Deductions for Business Expenses ....................147 

7-4:6 Deductions for Partial-Day Absences .................147 

7-4:7 Damages..............................................148 

7-5  29 CFR § 541.604. Minimum Guarantee Plus Extras.......148 

7-5:1 Burden to Establish Salaried Employee 

      Is Paid Correct Amount..............................149 

7-5:2 Ways to Pay Exempt Employees .......................150 

7-6  29 CFR § 541.605. Fee Basis ..........................150 

7-6:1 Fee Basis Explained ................................151 

7-6:2 Calculating Fee Basis...............................151 

7-7  29 CFR § 541.606. Board, Lodging or Other Facilities .151 

7-7:1 Determining the $455 Threshold .....................152 

7-7:2 “Other Facilities”..................................153 

 

Chapter 8: Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions........155

 

8-1 29 CFR § 541.700. Primary Duty.........................155

8-2 29 CFR § 541.701. Customarily and Regularly ...........156

8-2:1 “Customarily and Regularly” Defined.................156

8-3 29 CFR § 541.702. Exempt and Nonexempt Work............157

8-4 29 CFR § 541.703. Directly and Closely Related.........157

8-4:1 Interpreting the Regulation..........................161

8-4:2 Summary Judgment.....................................161

8-5 29 CFR § 541.704. Use of Manuals......................162

8-6 29 CFR § 541.705.Trainees.............................163

8-6:1 Revisions to the Regulation.........................163

8-6:2 Claiming Exempt Status for Trainees..................163

8-6:3 Students as Trainees.................................164

8-7 29 CFR § 541.706.Emergencies..........................165

8-7:1 Effect of Emergencies on Exempt Status..............166

8-7:2 Strikes..............................................167

8-8 29 CFR § 541.707. Occasional Tasks.....................167

8-9 29 CFR § 541.708. Combinations Exemptions..............167

8-10 29 CFR § 541.709. Motion Picture Producing Industry...168

8-11 29 CFR § 541.710. Employees of Public Agencies .......169

 

Chapter 9: Retaliation....................................171

 

9-1 29 U.S.C. § 215(a)(3). Retaliation.....................171

9-1:1“Filing”.............................................171

9-1:2 Complaints as Part of Job Duties.....................173

9-1:3 Words Used in Complaints.............................173

9-1:4 Complaints on Behalf of Other Employees.............174

9-1:5 Complaints Filed With State Agencies.................175 

9-1:6 Employee’s Testimony.................................175 

9-1:7 Adverse Employment Action............................175 

9-1:8 Applicants Not Protected by FLSA.....................177 

9-1:9 Protected Activity Occurring After Termination.......177 

9-1:10 Complaint Procedure v. Protest .....................177 

9-1:11 Damages.............................................178 

       9-1:11.1  Mental Anguish...........................178 

       9-1:11.2  Punitive Damages.........................179 

       9-1:11.3  Liquidated Damages.......................179 

       9-1:11.4  Injunctive Relief.......................180 

9-1:12 Who Can Be Sued in a Retaliation Case .............180 

       9-1:12.1  Employers Not Covered by the FLSA........180 

9-1:13 Discovery Disputes in Retaliation Cases............181 

9-1:14 Recent Retaliation Cases from 

       the Eleventh Circuit...............................181 

 

Chapter 10: Retail or Service Establishment................183

 

10-1 29 CFR § 779.411. Employee of a “Retail or

      Service Establishment”...............................183

10-1:1 Definition of Retail/Service

      Establishment Exemption ............................183

10-1:2 Determining Whether Employer Is a Retail

       or Service Establishment............................184

10-1:3 Meeting the Criteria for the Exemption..............185

10-1:4 Commissions........................................186

10-2 29 CFR § 779.413. Methods of Compensation of

     Retail Store Employees ..............................187

10-2:1 Commissioned Employees.............................188

 

Chapter 11: Exemption From Maximum Hours Provisions for

           Certain Employees of Motor Carriers............191

 

11-1 29 CFR § 782.2. Requirements for Exemption in General.191

11-1:1 “Commercial Motor Vehicle”..........................200

11-1:2 Requirements of Exemption...........................200

      11-1:2.1 Drivers....................................201

       11-1:2.2 Two-Part Analysis.........................203

11-1:3 Exemption as Affirmative Defense....................204

11-2 29 CFR § 782.3.Drivers...............................204

11-2:1 Definition of“Driver”..............................207

11-3 29 CFR § 782.4. Drivers’Helpers......................208

11-4 29 CFR § 782.5. Loaders .............................211 

11-5 29 CFR § 782.6. Mechanics ...........................216 

11-6 29 CFR § 782.7. Interstate Commerce Requirements 

      of Exemption........................................223 

11-7 29 CFR § 782.8. Special Classes for Carriers.........231 

Table ofCases.............................................235

Index......................................................249