Florida Affirmative Defenses and Procedural Objections

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Guides practitioners on the use, pleading, and application of defenses & procedural objections in FL civil cases, surveying common and useful defensive motions and procedural objections made.

Florida Affirmative Defenses and Procedural Objections guides practitioners on the use, pleading, and application of defenses and procedural objections in Florida state civil cases. In particular, the book surveys common and useful defensive motions and procedural objections to be made during the pleading phase of a case. Further, the book examines and discusses various affirmative defenses, including pleading requirements, jury concerns, and notable authority on each defense.

Moreover, and of immediate use, the book provides the practitioner with useful forms for each defense. These forms are also available online, so that they may be edited to suit the unique facts and circumstances of each case.

For this 2020 edition, we added more than 60 pages of new material, and revised and supplemented the section on personal jurisdiction contests with deeper case law and in-depth discussion of more prongs of Florida’s long-arm statute. In Chapter 6, we supplemented the discussion of the affirmative defense of fraud, among others, and added five new defenses: dead and buried doctrine (dissolution of a business entity), independent tort doctrine, necessity (business necessity), sovereign immunity, and way of necessity. With considerably more authority, more in-depth analysis, and even a few graphics, we hope you will find this update valuable to your practice.

Additional Information
SKU FLAFF20
Division Name Daily Business Review
Volumes 0
Product Types Books
Brand Daily Business Review (FL)
Publication Date September 30, 2019
Jurisdiction Florida
ISBN 978-1-62881-643-3
Page Count 782
Edition 2020
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You're reviewing:Florida Affirmative Defenses and Procedural Objections
Joshua Spector

Joshua Spector is a partner with the intellectual property law firm, Allen, Dyer, Doppelt + Gilchrist, PA. He is a Florida Bar board-certified business litigation lawyer. His practice is focused on commercial litigation and appeals, with a concentration on trade secret, noncompete and restrictive covenant cases. Mr. Spector is a fellow of the Florida Bar Leadership Academy, and was appointed to the Florida Supreme Court’s Standard Jury Instructions Committee for Business and Contract Cases.

Paul Turner

Paul Turner is a partner with the litigation group at Perlman, Bajandas, Yevoli & Albright, P.L. He is a business attorney who focuses his practice in the areas of complex commercial litigation and arbitration. Clients include domestic and foreign entities, high-net worth individuals, and professional athletes. Before joining the firm Mr. Turner served as general counsel for various Florida-based telecommunications companies with over $500MM in annual revenue. He has also handled hundreds of litigation and arbitration matters mainly within Florida but also within Colorado, the District of Columbia, Georgia, New York, Ohio, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. He received his B.A. from the University of Michigan, and his J.D. from the University of Miami School of Law.

 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Foundations for Legal and Affirmative Defenses................................... 1

1-1       INTRODUCTION....................................................................................... 1

1-1:1      
Purpose of Book........................................................................................................ 1

1-2       NATURE OF AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES........................................... 2

1-2:1      
Affirmative Defenses Confess and Avoid the Claims........................................ 2

1-3      
DEFENSES ARE PERMITTED IN CERTAIN
PLEADINGS AND MOTIONS.............................................................................. 5

1-3:1      
The Florida Rules of Civil Procedure Permit
Defenses in Certain Pleadings................................................................................. 5

1-3:2      
Drafting Requirements for Affirmative Defenses............................................... 6

1-3:3      
The Florida Rules of Civil Procedure Permit
Motions to Dismiss to Assert Affirmative
Defenses ..................................................................................................................... 7

1-4      
LEGAL DEFENSES DISTINGUISHED
FROM AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES.................................................................... 7

1-4:1      
Legal Defenses Attack the Claimant’s Prima
Facie Claims............................................................................................................... 7

1-5       FOUNDATIONS FOR DEFENSES.......................................................... 9

1-5:1      
Defenses and the Common Law............................................................................ 9

1-5:1.1      
Florida Common Law Gives Rise
to Affirmative Defenses.......................................................................... 9

1-5:1.2      
No Federal Common Law to Create
Affirmative Defenses............................................................................ 10

1-5:2      
Civil Code and Statutory Defenses...................................................................... 11

Chapter 2: Pleading and Proving Affirmative Defenses.......................................... 13

2-1       PLEADING AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES........................................... 13

2-1:1       Florida’s Fact Pleading Standard........................................................ 13

2-1:2       Pleading the Elements of Each Defense............................................ 14

2-1:3      
Defenses Should Designate Their
Corresponding Claims............................................................................................ 15

2-1:4       Denials Are Not Affirmative Defenses............................................... 16

2-1:5       Impact of Iqbal and Twombly in Florida........................................... 17

2-1:5.1      
Pleading Florida Defenses
in Federal Actions................................................................................... 17

2-1:5.2      
Iqbal and Twombly Provide Persuasive,
Minimum Pleading Standards ............................................................ 18

2-2       HEIGHTENED PLEADING STANDARDS........................................ 19

2-2:1       Rule 1.140 Defenses.............................................................................. 19

2-2:2      
The Federal Rule Omits Florida Rule 1.140’s Requirement to Allege With Particularity         21

2-2:3       Florida Rule 1.120 Objections............................................................. 22

2-2:3.1       Lack of Capacity to Sue.................................................. 23

2-2:3.2       Fraud Allegations Must Be Specific............................... 25

2-2:3.3      
Allegations of Mistake Must Be
Specific      26

2-2:3.4       Conditions Precedent........................................................ 27

2-2:3.5       Special Damage................................................................. 31

2-3      
DEALING WITH DEFICIENTLY
PLEADED DEFENSES......................................................................................... 32

2-3:1       Motion for More Definite Statement.................................................. 32

2-3:2       Motions to Strike and Dismiss Defenses............................................ 33

2-4       BURDEN TO PROVE DEFENSES........................................................ 34

2-4:1      
Defendants Bear the Burden to Prove Affirmative Defenses......................... 34

2-4:2       Burden Shifting....................................................................................... 35

2-5       APPLICABLE BURDEN STANDARDS.............................................. 35

2-5:1       Preponderance of the Evidence........................................................... 35

2-5:2       Clear and Convincing............................................................................ 36

Chapter 3: Rule 1.140(b) Legal Defenses and Objections......................................... 37

3-1      
USING RULE 1.140 LEGAL DEFENSES
AND OBJECTIONS.............................................................................................. 37

3-1:1       Asserting Defenses by Pre-Answer Motion........................................ 38

3-1:1.1      
Waiver of Defenses Not Joined
in Initial Motion...................................................................................... 38

3-1:1.2      
Using the Proper Motion for Each
Defense and Objection.......................................................................... 40

3-1:2      
Incorporating Rule 1.140 Defenses into Responsive Pleading....................... 41

3-1:2.1      
Preservation of Defenses Joined
in Responsive Pleading.......................................................................... 42

3-1:3      
Pleading Rule 1.140 Defenses With Particularity.............................................. 42

3-1:4      
Use of Material or Evidence Outside
the Four Corners of the Prior Pleading................................................................. 42

3-1:5      
Using Affirmative Defenses in Rule 1.140 Motions......................................... 45

3-2      
LACK OF JURISDICTION OVER
THE SUBJECT MATTER................................................................................... 46

3-2:1       Governing Rule: 1.140(b)(1)................................................................ 46

3-2:2       Bases for Defense.................................................................................. 46

3-2:2.1      
Exclusive and Original Jurisdiction
of the Florida Courts.............................................................................. 48

3-2:2.2      
Separation of Powers Doctrine May
Bar Subject Matter Jurisdiction........................................................... 49

3-2:2.3      
Arbitration Clauses Do Not Deprive
Court of Subject Matter Jurisdiction.................................................. 50

3-2:2.4       Federal Preemption............................................................ 50

3-2:2.5      
Statutes of Repose or Nonclaim and
Subject Matter Jurisdiction................................................................... 51

3-2:2.6      
Failure to Exhaust Administrative
Remedies   52

3-2:2.7       Local Action Rule.............................................................. 53

3-2:2.8       Res Judicata as an Affirmative Defense....................... 53

3-2:2.9      
Lack of Standing as an
Affirmative Defense.............................................................................. 54

3-3       LACK OF JURISDICTION OVER THE PERSON............................. 55

3-3:1       Jurisdiction Over the Person................................................................. 55

3-3:2       Governing Rule and Statutes............................................................... 55

3-3:2.1      
Rule 1.140(b)(2) – Lack of Personal Jurisdiction............................. 55

3-3:2.2      
Insufficient Process and Service
Undermines Personal Jurisdiction........................................................ 56

3-3:2.3      
Florida’s Long-Arm Statute,
Section 48.193, Florida Statutes.......................................................... 57

3-3:3       Bases for Personal Jurisdiction............................................................ 57

3-3:3.1       Overview of Personal Jurisdiction Defense................... 57

3-3:3.2      
Strict Construction of Florida’s
Long-Arm Statute.................................................................................. 59

3-3:3.3      
Specific and General Jurisdiction-Florida’s
Long-Arm Statute.................................................................................. 60

3-3:4       Specific Jurisdiction............................................................................... 63

3-3:4.1      
Specific Jurisdiction’s Connexity Requirement................................ 63

3-3:4.2       Requirement of Personal Action/Inaction.................... 63

3-3:4.3      
Long-Arm Statute and Operation
of a Business in Florida......................................................................... 65

3-3:4.4       Corporate Shield Doctrine................................................ 68

3-3:4.5       Breach of a Contract in Florida...................................... 69

3-3:4.6      
Committing a Tortious Act Within
Florida        71

3-3:5       General Jurisdiction................................................................................ 72

3-3:6      
Sufficient Minimum Contacts to Satisfy
Procedural Due Process.......................................................................................... 74

3-3:7       Waiver of Personal Jurisdiction Defense............................................ 76

3-3:7.1       Waiver If Not Timely Asserted........................................ 76

3-3:7.2      
Waiver If Defendant Seeks
Affirmative Relief.................................................................................. 76

3-3:8      
Procedure for Invoking Defense of Lack
of Personal Jurisdiction.......................................................................................... 78

3-3:8.1      
Evidentiary Submissions and
Burden-Shifting...................................................................................... 78

3-3:9      
Using Discovery to Test Lack of Jurisdiction
Defense  79

3-4       IMPROPER VENUE................................................................................ 80

3-4:1       Governing Rules and Statutes.............................................................. 80

3-4:1.1       Rule 1.140(b)(3)................................................................. 80

3-4:1.2       Rule 1.060........................................................................... 81

3-4:1.3       Chapter 47, Florida Statutes............................................ 81

3-4:1.4      
Motion to Dismiss for Forum
Non Conveniens..................................................................................... 83

3-4:2      
Bases for Defense and Motion
to Abate and Transfer............................................................................................ 83

3-4:2.1       Improper Venue Motion and Procedure........................ 83

3-4:2.2      
Forum Selection Clauses or Arbitration Clauses.............................. 84

3-4:2.3       Home Venue Privilege....................................................... 85

3-4:3      
Forum Non Conveniens and Motions to Dismiss.............................................. 85

3-5       INSUFFICIENCY OF PROCESS.......................................................... 86

3-5:1       Defense or Objection for Insufficiency of Process.......................... 86

3-5:2       Bases for Defense.................................................................................. 86

3-6       INSUFFICIENCY OF SERVICE OF PROCESS................................. 88

3-6:1       Governing Rule and Statutes............................................................... 88

3-6:1.1       Rule 1.140(b)(5)................................................................. 88

3-6:1.2      
Florida Statutes Governing Service
of Process  88

3-6:2       Bases for Objection and Defense........................................................ 92

3-6:2.1      
Lack of Compliance With Service
of Process Rules...................................................................................... 92

3-6:3      
Burden in Moving to Quash or Dismiss
for Insufficient Service of Process....................................................................... 92

3-7       FAILURE TO STATE A CAUSE OF ACTION................................... 92

3-7:1       Failure to State a Claim........................................................................ 92

3-7:1.2      
Opportunities to Assert Failure to State
a Claim or Defense................................................................................ 93

3-7:2       Bases for Defense.................................................................................. 93

3-7:2.1      
Failure to Allege Elements
or Ultimate Facts.................................................................................... 93

3-7:2.2      
Failure to Allege Claims With Requisite
Particularity............................................................................................. 94

3-7:2.3      
Motion to Dismiss Based on
an Affirmative Defense........................................................................ 94

3-7:2.4      
Claim or Defense Barred, Precluded,
or Estopped by Doctrine or Rule......................................................... 94

3-7:2.5       Failure to Attach Necessary Exhibit............................... 95

3-7:2.6       Improper Commingling of Claims ................................. 96

3-7:2.7      
Improper Damages Do Not Invalidate
an Otherwise Cognizable Claim.......................................................... 96

3-7:3      
Failure to State a Claim Defenses After the
Pleading Stage and Through Trial........................................................................ 97

3-7:4       Failure to State a Defense, as Opposed to a Claim.......................... 99

3-7:5       Plaintiff Must Timely Amend.............................................................. 99

3-8       FAILURE TO JOIN INDISPENSABLE PARTIES............................. 99

3-8:1       Pre-Answer Motion or Responsive Pleading Defense...................... 99

3-8:2       Bases for Defense ............................................................................... 100

3-8:3       Opportunities to Raise Defense......................................................... 101

Chapter 4: Motions Useful to the Defense................................................................... 103

4-1       INTRODUCTION.................................................................................. 103

4-2      
MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS.................................... 104

4-2:1       Basis for Motion.................................................................................. 104

4-2:2       Burden for Movant............................................................................. 104

4-2:3      
Partial Judgment on the Pleadings
Might Not Be Permitted....................................................................................... 105

4-3       MOTION FOR MORE DEFINITE STATEMENT........................... 106

4-3:1       Basis for Motion.................................................................................. 106

4-4       MOTION TO STRIKE MATTER FROM PLEADING.................... 107

4-4:1       Basis for Motion.................................................................................. 107

4-4:2       Burden for Movant............................................................................. 109

4-5      
MOTION TO DISMISS FOR FORUM
NON CONVENIENS........................................................................................... 109

4-5:1       Basis for Motion.................................................................................. 109

4-5:2       Burden for Movant............................................................................. 109

4-6       MOTION TO STRIKE SHAM PLEADINGS.................................... 112

4-6:1       Basis for Motion.................................................................................. 112

4-6:2       Burden for Movant............................................................................. 113

4-7      
MOTION TO COMPLY WITH FLORIDA
RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE.................................................................... 114

4-7:1       Failure to Attach Instrument ............................................................ 115

4-7:2       Misjoinder of Parties .......................................................................... 116

4-7:3      
Mistaken Designation of Affirmative
Defense as Counterclaim or Counterclaim
as Affirmative Defense ....................................................................................... 116

4-7:4       Misjoinder of Claims or Defenses .................................................... 117

4-7:5      
Failure to State Short and Plain Statements
of Ultimate Facts ................................................................................................. 117

4-8       MOTION TO INVOLUNTARILY DISMISS ACTION................... 118

4-8:1       Basis for Motion ................................................................................. 118

4-8:2       Burden for Movant............................................................................. 118

4-9       MOTION TO TRANSFER ACTION.................................................. 119

4-10     MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT......................................... 119

4-10:1     Summary Judgment and Affirmative Defenses............................ 119

4-10:2     Governing Rule in State Court........................................................... 120

4-10:3     Motions for Partial Summary Judgment......................................... 120

4-10:4     Movant’s Burden With Regard to Defenses................................... 121

4-10:5    
Effect of Pending Discovery and Summary
Judgment................................................................................................................ 125

4-10:6     Finality of Summary Judgment and Strategy................................ 126

Chapter 5: Reply Pleading............................................................................................. 129

5-1       INTRODUCTION.................................................................................. 129

5-1:1       Function of the Reply......................................................................... 129

5-1:2       Form and Timing................................................................................. 130

5-1:3      
Mandatory Reply to Assert Legal Excuse or Justification to Adverse Affirmative Defenses 131

5-2       CONTENTS OF A REPLY................................................................... 131

5-2:1       Defenses to the Defenses.................................................................... 131

5-2:2       Factual Allegations.............................................................................. 132

5-2:3       Exclude Mere Factual Denials of Defenses.................................... 132

5-3       WAIVER OF DEFENSES NOT ASSERTED IN REPLY................ 133

5-4       THERE IS NO REPLY TO A REPLY................................................ 133

Chapter 6: Affirmative Defenses.................................................................................. 135

6-1       ABANDONMENT................................................................................. 135

6-1:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 135

6-1:2      
Elements of Abandonment................................................................................. 135

6-1:3      
Notable Authority on Abandonment................................................................ 135

6-1:4      
Application of Abandonment............................................................................ 136

6-1:4.1      
Causes of Action or Defenses............................................................ 136

6-1:4.2      
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 136

6-1:4.3      
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 136

6-1:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 137

6-1:5.1      
Form Defense of Abandonment....................................................... 137

6-2       ABSTENTION........................................................................................ 137

6-2:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 137

6-2:2      
Elements of Abstention ...................................................................................... 139

6-2:2.1       Pullman Abstention Doctrine........................................ 139

6-2:2.2       Burford Abstention Doctrine......................................... 139

6-2:2.3       Younger Abstention Doctrine........................................ 139

6-2:3      
Notable Authority on Abstention....................................................................... 139

6-2:4      
Application of Abstention................................................................................... 140

6-2:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 140

6-2:4.2      
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 140

6-2:4.3      
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 140

6-2:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 141

6-2:5.1      
Form Defense of Abstention
(Pullman Abstention Doctrine).......................................................... 141

6-2:5.2      
Form Defense of Abstention
(Burford Abstention Doctrine)........................................................... 141

6-2:5.3      
Form Defense of Abstention
(Younger Abstention Doctrine).......................................................... 142

6-3       ACCORD AND SATISFACTION....................................................... 142

6-3:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 142

6-3:2      
Elements of Accord and Satisfaction............................................................... 142

6-3:3      
Notable Authority on Accord and Satisfaction............................................... 143

6-3:4      
Application of Accord and Satisfaction .......................................................... 144

6-3:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 144

6-3:4.2      
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 144

6-3:4.3      
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 144

6-3:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 144

6-3:5.1      
Statutory Forms................................................................................... 144

6-3:5.2      
Form Defense of Accord and
Satisfaction – Form 1.967, Fla. R. Civ. P........................................ 145

6-4       ACQUIESCENCE; BOUNDARY-BY-ACQUIESCENCE.............. 145

6-4:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 145

6-4:2      
Elements of Acquiescence.................................................................................. 146

6-4:3       Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 146

6-4:4      
Application of Acquiescence.............................................................................. 146

6-4:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 146

6-4:4.2      
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 146

6-4:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 147

6-4:5.1      
Form Defense of Waiver (Written)................................................... 147

6-5       ACT OF STATE DOCTRINE.............................................................. 147

6-5:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 147

6-5:2      
Elements of Act of State Doctrine..................................................................... 147

6-5:3      
Notable Authority on Act of State Doctrine.................................................... 147

6-5:4      
Application of Act of State Doctrine................................................................. 148

6-5:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 148

6-5:4.2      
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 148

6-5:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 148

6-5:5.1      
Form Defense of Act of State Doctrine........................................... 148

6-6      
ADHESION CONTRACTS
(CONTRACTS OF ADHESION)...................................................................... 149

6-6:1       Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 149

6-7       ADVERSE INFERENCE EXCEPTION............................................. 149

6-7:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 149

6-7:2      
Elements of Adverse Inference Exception....................................................... 149

6-7:3      
Notable Authority on Adverse Inference Exception...................................... 149

6-7:4      
Application of Adverse Inference Exception.................................................. 150

6-7:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action or Defenses....................................... 150

6-7:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 150

6-7:5.1      
Form Defense of Adverse Inference Exception............................. 150

6-8       ADVICE OF COUNSEL....................................................................... 151

6-8:1       Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 151

6-8:2      
Elements of Advice of Counsel.......................................................................... 151

6-8:3      
Notable Authority on Advice of Counsel......................................................... 151

6-8:4      
Application of Advice of Counsel..................................................................... 152

6-8:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 152

6-8:4.2      
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 152

6-8:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 152

6-8:5.1      
Form Defense of Advice of Counsel................................................ 152

6-9       ALTERATION OF INSTRUMENT.................................................... 153

6-9:1      
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 153

6-9:2      
Elements of Alteration of Instrument............................................................... 154

6-9:3      
Notable Authority on Alteration of Instrument.............................................. 154

6-9:4      
Application of Alteration of Instrument........................................................... 155

6-9:4.1      
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 155

6-9:4.2      
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 155

6-9:4.3      
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 155

6-9:5      
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 155

6-9:5.1      
Statutory Bases: Sections 673.4061
and 673.4071....................................................................................... 155

6-9:5.2      
Form Defense of Alteration
of Instrument........................................................................................ 157

6-9:5.2a    
Alteration of Instrument
(§ 673.4061, Fla. Stat.)................................................... 157

6-9:5.2b    
Alteration of Instrument
(§ 673.4071, Fla. Stat.)................................................... 157

6-10     ANTICIPATORY REPUDIATION..................................................... 158

6-10:1     Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 158

6-10:2     Elements of Defense........................................................................... 159

6-10:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 159

6-10:4     Application of Defense....................................................................... 159

6-10:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 159

6-10:4.2     Notes on Trial by Jury..................................................... 160

6-10:5     Drafting Authorities and Forms......................................................... 160

6-10:5.1     Jury Instructions.............................................................. 160

6-10:5.2     Form Defense................................................................... 160

6-11     ARBITRATION AND AWARD.......................................................... 161

6-11:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 161

6-11:2    
Elements of Arbitration and Award.................................................................. 161

6-11:3    
Notable Authority on Arbitration and Award.................................................. 161

6-11:4    
Application of Arbitration and Award.............................................................. 162

6-11:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 162

6-11:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 162

6-11:5.1    
Statutory Basis..................................................................................... 162

6-11:5.2    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 162

6-11:5.2a  
Arbitration and Award.................................................... 162

6-12     ASSUMPTION OF RISK...................................................................... 163

6-12:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 163

6-12:2    
Elements of Assumption of Risk....................................................................... 163

6-12:3    
Notable Authority on Assumption of Risk....................................................... 164

6-12:4    
Application of Assumption of Risk................................................................... 164

6-12:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 164

6-12:4.2    
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 164

6-12:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 164

6-12:5.1    
Statutory Forms................................................................................... 164

6-12:5.2    
Jury Instructions................................................................................... 164

6-12:5.3    
Form Defense of Assumption of Risk –
Fla. R. Civ. P. Form 1.972.................................................................. 165

6-13     AVOIDABLE CONSEQUENCES....................................................... 165

6-13:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 165

6-14     BONA FIDE ERROR............................................................................ 166

6-14:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 166

6-14:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 167

6-14:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 167

6-14:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 167

6-14:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 167

6-14:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 167

6-14:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 167

6-15     BONA FIDE PURCHASER FOR VALUE......................................... 168

6-15:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 168

6-15:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 168

6-15:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 169

6-15:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 170

6-15:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 170

6-15:4.2    
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 170

6-15:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 170

6-15:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 170

6-16     BUSINESS COMPULSION................................................................. 170

6-16:1     Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 170

6-16:2     Elements of Defense........................................................................... 171

6-16:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 171

6-16:4     Application of Defense....................................................................... 173

6-16:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 173

6-16:4.2     Notes on Trial by Jury..................................................... 173

6-16:5     Drafting Authorities and Forms......................................................... 173

6-16:5.1     Form Defense................................................................... 173

6-17     Business Judgment Rule ......................................................... 174

6-17:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 174

6-17:2    
Elements of Business Judgment Rule............................................................... 175

6-17:3    
Notable Authority on Business
Judgment Rule....................................................................................................... 175

6-17:4    
Application of Business Judgment Rule........................................................... 183

6-17:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 183

6-17:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 183

6-17:5.1    
Form Defense of Business
Judgment Rule...................................................................................... 183

6-18     CESSATION OF BUSINESS—§ 542.335, Fla. Stat.................. 184

6-18:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 184

6-18:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 184

6-18:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 185

6-18:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 185

6-18:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 185

6-18:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 185

6-18:5.1    
Statutory Forms................................................................................... 185

6-18:5.2    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 185

6-19     COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL – ISSUE PRECLUSION..................... 186

6-19:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 186

6-19:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 186

6-19:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 187

6-19:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 189

6-19:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 189

6-19:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 189

6-19:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 189

6-20     COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE....................................................... 190

6-20:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 190

6-20:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 191

6-20:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 191

6-20:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 192

6-20:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 192

6-20:4.2    
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 193

6-20:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 193

6-20:5.1    
Statutory Forms................................................................................... 193

6-20:5.2    
Jury Instructions................................................................................... 193

6-20:5.3    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 193

6-21     CONDITION PRECEDENT................................................................. 194

6-21:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 194

6-21:1.1    
Distinguishing Conditions
Precedent to Formation and
Conditions Precedent to Performance............................................. 195

6-21:1.2     Specific Denial Pleading Burden................................... 196

6-21:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 196

6-21:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 197

6-21:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 199

6-21:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 199

6-21:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 199

6-21:5.1    
Jury Instructions................................................................................... 199

6-21:5.2    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 199

6-22     CORPORATE SHIELD DOCTRINE................................................. 199

6-22:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 199

6-22:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 200

6-22:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 201

6-22:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 202

6-22:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 202

6-22:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 202

6-22:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 202

6-23    
DEAD AND BURIED DOCTRINE –
DISSOLVED ENTITY........................................................................................ 202

6-23:1     Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 202

6-23:2     Elements of Defense........................................................................... 204

6-23:2.1     Dissolution of a Florida Corporation........................... 205

6-23:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 210

6-23:4     Application of Defense....................................................................... 210

6-23:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 210

6-23:4.2     Notes on Trial by Jury..................................................... 211

6-23:5     Drafting Authorities and Forms......................................................... 211

6-23:5.1     Jury Instructions.............................................................. 211

6-23:5.2     Form Defense................................................................... 211

6-24     DISCHARGE IN BANKRUPTCY...................................................... 211

6-24:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 211

6-24:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 212

6-24:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 212

6-24:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 213

6-24:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 213

6-24:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 213

6-24:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 213

6-25     DOOR CLOSING STATUTES............................................................. 214

6-25:1     Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 214

6-25:2     Elements of Defense........................................................................... 214

6-25:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 215

6-25:4     Application of Defense....................................................................... 217

6-25:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 217

6-25:4.2     Notes on Trial by Jury..................................................... 217

6-25:5     Drafting Authorities and Forms......................................................... 217

6-25:5.1     Form Defense................................................................... 217

6-26     DURESS.................................................................................................. 218

6-26:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 218

6-26:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 218

6-26:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 218

6-26:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 220

6-26:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 220

6-26:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 220

6-26:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 220

6-27     ECONOMIC LOSS RULE.................................................................... 221

6-27:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 221

6-27:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 222

6-27:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 223

6-27:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 223

6-27:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 223

6-27:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 223

6-27:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 223

6-28     ELECTION OF REMEDIES................................................................ 224

6-28:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 224

6-28:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 225

6-28:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 225

6-28:4    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 226

6-28:4.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 226

6-29     EQUITABLE ESTOPPEL..................................................................... 227

6-29:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 227

6-29:2    
Elements of Equitable Estoppel......................................................................... 227

6-29:3    
Notable Authority on Estoppel........................................................................... 228

6-29:4    
Application of Estoppel....................................................................................... 229

6-29:4.1    
Applications to Claims and Defenses.............................................. 229

6-29:4.2    
Nature of Defense................................................................................ 230

6-29:4.3    
Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................................... 230

6-29:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 230

6-29:5.1    
Jury Instructions................................................................................... 230

6-29:5.2    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 230

6-30    
FAILURE OF CONSIDERATION AND WANT OF CONSIDERATION. 231

6-30:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 231

6-30:2    
Elements of Defenses........................................................................................... 231

6-30:3    
Notable Authority on Defenses.......................................................................... 232

6-30:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 233

6-30:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 233

6-30:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 233

6-30:5.1    
Statutory Forms................................................................................... 233

6-30:5.2    
Note on Jury Trial................................................................................ 233

6-30:5.3    
Jury Instructions................................................................................... 234

6-30:5.4    
Form Defense – Failure of Consideration....................................... 234

6-30:5.5    
Form Defense – Want of Consideration.......................................... 234

6-31    
FAILURE TO EXHAUST ADMINISTRATIVE
REMEDIES.......................................................................................................... 235

6-31:1     Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 235

6-31:2     Elements of Defense........................................................................... 235

6-31:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 235

6-31:4     Application of Defense....................................................................... 238

6-31:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 238

6-31:4.2     Notes on Trial by Jury..................................................... 238

6-31:5     Drafting Authorities and Forms......................................................... 238

6-31:5.1     Jury Instructions.............................................................. 238

6-31:5.2     Form Defense................................................................... 239

6-32    
FARAGHER/ELLERTH VICARIOUS LIABILITY DEFENSES................. 239

6-32:1     Explanation of Defense...................................................................... 239

6-32:2     Elements of Defense........................................................................... 240

6-32:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 240

6-32:4     Application of Defense....................................................................... 241

6-32:4.1 Applicable Causes of Action or Defenses....................... 241

6-32:4.2 Notes on Trial by Jury......................................................... 241

6-32:5     Drafting Authorities and Forms......................................................... 242

6-32:5.1     Jury Instructions.............................................................. 242

6-32:5.2     Form Defense................................................................... 242

6-33     FORFEITURE........................................................................................ 242

6-33:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 242

6-33:2    
Elements of Defense............................................................................................ 243

6-33:3    
Notable Authority on Defense............................................................................ 243

6-33:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 244

6-33:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
or Defenses............................................................................................ 244

6-33:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 244

6-33:5.1    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 244

6-34     FRAUD.................................................................................................... 245

6-34:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 245

6-34:2    
Elements of Fraud................................................................................................ 246

6-34:3     Notable Authority on Defense........................................................... 246

6-34:4    
Application of Defense........................................................................................ 248

6-34:4.1    
Applicable Causes of Action
and Defenses........................................................................................ 248

6-34:5    
Drafting Authorities and Forms.......................................................................... 249

6-34:5.1    
Jury Instructions................................................................................... 249

6-34:5.2    
Form Defense....................................................................................... 249

6-35     FRUSTRATION OF PURPOSE........................................................... 250

6-35:1    
Explanation of Defense....................................................................................... 250

6-35:2    
Elements of Defense...........................................................................

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