Connecticut Foreclosures

Standing Order with Automatic Update Service

Denis R. Caron, Geoffrey K. Milne

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Connecticut Foreclosures is the most authoritative treatise on the subject and issued by a vast number of judges and attorneys practicing in the area of foreclosures. Written by Denis Caron, long recognized as the leading authority on foreclosures in Connecticut, in collaboration with Geoffrey Milne.

Connecticut Foreclosures covers every aspect of Foreclosure Law in Connecticut, from Preliminary Considerations to Defenses and Appeals. The book has been cited by judges in over 200 decisions.

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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: The Connecticut Law Tribune
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 2019
  • Page Count: 2148
  • ISBN: 978-1-62881-537-5
  • Pub#/SKU#: QBKFOR9
  • Pub Date: 11/28/2018
  • Volume(s): 2

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  • Denis R. Caron


Denis R. Caron is Vice President and Connecticut Counsel of Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company, with an office in Hartford. He is a graduate of St. Anselm College and The University of Connecticut School of Law. He is an elected member of the American College of Real Estate Lawyers (1999). He has been serving on the Standards of Title Committee of the Connecticut Bar Association since 1985, and as its chairman since 2004. He is also an Emeritus member of the Executive Committee of the Real Property Section of the Connecticut Bar Association. He is past chairman of the Real Property Committee of the Hartford County Bar Association and past President of the Connecticut Title Association.

            Caron is a contributing author to Dunaway, The Law of Distressed Real Estate (Thomson Reuters, 2011), and is also the author of A Century in Captivity: The Life and Trials of Prince Mortimer, A Connecticut Slave (University Press of New England, 2006), which was the recipient of the 2007 Connecticut Book Award for biography presented by the Connecticut Center for the Book, an affiliate of the Library of Congress.

Author Image
  • Geoffrey K. Milne

Geoffrey K. Milne is a partner in the Litigation Department and a shareholder in Hunt Leibert Jacobson, PC, Hartford, CT. Milne earned his Juris Doctor from Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania and earned his Bachelors degree, cum laude, from Marist College in New York. Milne has been recognized as a 2011 Connecticut Super Lawyer for Business Litigation. His practice involves the representation of banks, mortgage companies and servicers in lender liability, mortgage fraud, and title insurance, as well as consumer-related claims involving truth in lending, fair credit reporting, and fair debt collection. Milne is admitted in all of the state and federal courts of Connecticut and the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and seminars sponsored by the MBA and other organizations.



Chapter 1: Preliminary Considerations

1-1 Review of Documents
1-1:1 Mortgage Foreclosure
1-2 Examination of Title
1-2:1 Granteeing the Mortgagor
1-2:2 Incidental Searches
1-3 The Notice of Lis Pendens Act
1-3:1 Service of the Notice of Lis Pendens
1-3:2 Challenging the Notice of Lis Pendens
1-4 The Moratorium Act
1-5 Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac Uniform Instrument
1-5:1 Notice of Default
1-6 Reinstatement
1-6:1 Reinstatement Letters Not a Basis for a Defense to Foreclosure
1-7 Prejudgment Remedy to Secure Deficiency Judgment
1-8 The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
1-9 Foreclosure Counseling under the National Housing Act
1-10 Single Family Mortgage Foreclosure Act of 1994 (Federal)
1-11 The Transfer Act
1-12 The Connecticut Abusive Home Loan Lending Practices Act
1-13 Property and Casualty Insurance
1-14 The Hope for Homeowners Program and Other Federal Relief Programs
1-14:1 The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008
1-15 Nonprime Lender Regulation
1-15:1 The Good Faith Requirements
1-15:2 Limitations on Use of Loan Proceeds
1-15:3 Prerequisites for Making the Loan
1-15:4 Prohibited Provisions
1-15:5 Mortgage Broker Obligations
1-15:6 Borrower Remedies
1-15:7 Other Provisions—Limitations on Secondary Loans
1-16 Foreclosure Rescue Scams—Introduction
1-16:1 The Scam
1-16:2 Does the Former Owner Retain Any Interest in the Property?
1-16:3 Quiet Title Actions
1-17 New Registration Requirement for Residential Properties
1-17:1 Registration Now Required Only for Institutional Mortgage Foreclosures
1-17:2 Registration Now Required at Commencement of Suit
1-17:3 The Registration Process
1-17:4 Sanctions for Noncompliance
1-17:5 No Lender Liability Prior to Completion of Foreclosure
1-17:6 The Challenge of Municipal Blight
1-18 Trusts as Equitable Interests Capable of Foreclosure

Chapter 2: Standing Orders
2-1 New State-wide Standing Orders for Foreclosures
2-1:1 The New Notice Provision
2-1:2 New Standing Orders Pertaining to All Foreclosures
2-1:3 Standing Orders Relating to Foreclosures by Sale
2-1:4 Federal Loss Mitigation
2-1:5 Foreclosure Mediation
2-1:6 Short Calendar Notice for Foreclosure Matters

Chapter 3: Foreclosure Attorneys as Debt Collectors: Impact of the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
3-1 Introduction
3-2 Annual Federal Trade Commission Report
3-3 Overview of Key Statutory Provisions
3-3:1 Demanding a Larger Payment Than Is Permitted by Law
3-3:2 Harassing the Alleged Debtor or Others
3-3:3 Impermissible Calls to Consumer’s Place of Employment
3-3:4 Revealing Alleged Debt to Third Parties
3-3:5 Failing to Send Required Consumer Notice
3-3:6 Failing to Verify Disputed Debts
3-3:7 Continuing to Contact Consumer after Receiving ‘Cease Communication’
3-4 Consumer Debts
3-4:1 Purchasing Debts in Default Is Not Debt Collection
3-5 Civil Liability for Noncompliance
3-5:1 Statutory Damages
3-5:2 Actual Damages
3-5:3 Defenses
3-5:4 Debt Collection
3-5:5 Applicability to Attorneys Conclusively Decided
3-6 What Transactions and Attorneys are Affected?
3-6:1 Communication with the Consumer
3-6:2 Limitation of Communications with Third Parties
3-6:3 Location Information
3-6:4 Notice Requirements
3-7 Venue
3-8 Prohibited Practices
3-8:1 False, Deceptive or Misleading Representations
3-9 Connecticut Creditors’ Collection Practices Act
3-10 Conclusions

Chapter 4: Jurisdiction and Venue
4-1 Jurisdiction
4-2 Venue
4-3 Transfer of Actions

Chapter 5: Commencement of Suit
5-1 The Summons
5-2 Parties—Plaintiffs
5-2:1 Assignee as Plaintiff
5-2:2 Note Holder as Plaintiff
5-2:3 Assignee’s Foreclosure in Name of Assignor
5-2:4 Fiduciary as Plaintiff
5-2:5 Filing an Action on Behalf of a Trade Name
5-3 Defendants
5-3:1 The Owner of the Equity of Redemption
5-3:2 Subsequent Encumbrancers
5-4 Service of Process
5-4:1 To Whom Directed
5-4:2 Particular Forms of Service on Individuals
5-4:3 Service on Corporations
5-4:4 Service on Municipalities
5-4:5 Service on Partnerships
5-4:6 Service on Limited Partnerships
5-4:7 Service on Nonresident Mortgagees, Attaching Creditors and Judgment Lienors
5-4:8 Service on State of Connecticut
5-4:9 Service on the United States of America
5-4:10 Service re Joint Contracts
5-4:11 Service on Voluntary Associations
5-5 Orders of Notice
5-5:1 Due Process and Jones v. Flowers
5-6 The Complaint
5-6:1 Amended Complaint When Assignee Is Substituted as Plaintiff
5-6:2 Practice Book Form 704.31
5-6:3 Mortgages Securing Demand Notes
5-6:4 Foreclosure of Municipal Tax Liens
5-6:5 Combined Mortgage and Financing Statement Foreclosure
5-7 Reformation of Mortgage Deed

Chapter 6: Motions, The Hearing on Judgment, The Judgment File and The Bill of Costs
6-1 Motions
6-1:1 The Statutory Continuance
6-1:2 Motion for Appointment of Guardian ad Litem
6-1:3 Defaulting the Defendants
6-1:4 Motion for Summary Judgment
6-1:5 Motion to Cite Additional Defendants
6-1:6 Motion for Foreclosure by Sale
6-1:7 Motion for Judgment of Strict Foreclosure
6-1:8 Discovery
6-1:9 Defendant’s Motion for Attorneys’ Fees Under § 42-150bb
6-2 The Hearing on Judgment
6-2:1 Requirements
6-2:2 Jury Trial on Counterclaim
6-2:3 Challenges to Validity of Claims of Other Defendants
6-3 The Judgment of Strict Foreclosure
6-3:1 Judgment Not Modifiable in Absence of Motion
6-4 The Judgment of Foreclosure by Sale—Statutory Requirements
6-4:1 The Appointment of a Person to Make the Sale
6-4:2 Fix a Day for the Sale
6-4:3 Direct Whether the Property Shall Be Sold as a Whole or in Parcels
6-4:4 How the Sale Shall Be Made
6-4:5 How the Sale Shall Be Advertised
6-4:6 The Appointment of Appraiser
6-4:7 Other Non-Statutory Requirements
6-5 Priorities Issues in Strict Foreclosure
6-5:1 Fixture Filings
6-6 Rights of First Refusal and Foreclosure Sales
6-7 Foreclosing a Mortgage Secured by Affordable Housing Unit
6-8 The Judgment File
6-8:1 Practice Book Form 707.1—Judgment of Strict Foreclosure
6-8:2 Practice Book Form 707.2—Judgment of Foreclosure by Sale
6-9 The Bill of Costs

Chapter 7: The Committee
7-1 The Uniform Procedures and Uniform Standing Orders
7-1:1 Other Considerations
7-2 Filing Appearance
7-3 Review of Land Records
7-4 Advertising the Sale
7-5 Obtaining Insurance
7-6 Procuring the Sign
7-6:1 The Missing-Sign Dilemma
7-7 Responding to Inquiries
7-8 Property Inspection
7-9 Preparing the Documents
7-10 Unusual Expenses
7-11 Conducting the Sale
7-11:1 Pre-Auction Bidding by Plaintiff
7-11:2 Committee’s Exercise of Discretion
7-11:3 Committee’s Return of Sale
7-12 Obtaining Approval of the Sale
7-12:1 When Plaintiff Must Pay Committee Fees
7-13 The Committee Report
7-14 The Committee Deed
7-14:1 Effect of Validating Act on Defective Deeds
7-15 The Hearing on Approval
7-15:1 Constitutionality of Connecticut General Statutes § 49-25 Challenged
7-15:2 Bankruptcy Filing Stays Approval of Committee Fees and Expenses
7-16 The Closing
7-16:1 Timing and Adjustments
7-16:2 Conveyance Tax
7-16:3 Form 1099-S
7-16:4 Residential Condition Report
7-17 Some Common Problems
7-17:1 The Plaintiff as Purchaser
7-17:2 Second Mortgage Sale
7-17:3 Blanket Mortgages
7-18 Obtaining Possession for the Purchaser

Chapter 8: Representing the Purchaser
8-1 Introduction
8-2 Prior to and at the Sale
8-3 After the Sale
8-3:1 Property Damaged or Destroyed
8-3:2 The Defaulting Purchaser
8-4 The Plaintiff as Purchaser
8-5 Effect of Appeal from Sale ­Approval on Purchaser’s Obligation to Close
8-6 Purchasing the Same Property at Multiple Foreclosure Sales
8-7 Evaluating the Title Derived Through a Foreclosure

Chapter 9: Determination of Priorities and the Supplemental Judgment
9-1 The Statutory Framework
9-2 Determination of Priorities
9-2:1 The Uncontested Case
9-2:2 The Contested Case
9-2:3 Apportionment
9-3 The Supplemental Judgment
9-3:1 Post-Judgment Interest
9-3:2 When Proof of Debt by Affidavit Not Sufficient
9-3:3 Additional Debts of Pre-Lis Pendens Creditors
9-3:4 Reserve for Anticipated Attorneys’ Fees
9-4 The Partial Supplemental Judgment
9-4:1 Further Supplemental Judgment
9-5 Supplemental Judgment When Plaintiff Is Purchaser
9-5:1 When No Funds Are Paid Into Court
9-5:2 When the Excess Is Paid Into Court

Chapter 10: Post-Judgment Proceedings
10-1 Opening the Judgment
10-1:1 Judgment of Strict Foreclosure
10-1:2 Judgment of Foreclosure by Sale
10-1:3 To Add Defendant
10-1:4 Challenging the Debt After Redemption
10-1:5 Petition for New Trial
10-1:6 Fraud as Ground for Opening Judgment
10-2 Redemption
10-2:1 In Strict Foreclosure
10-2:2 In Foreclosure by Sale
10-2:3 Effect of Redemption on Post-Lis Pendens Attaching Creditor
10-3 The Certificate of Foreclosure
10-4 The Execution of Ejectment
10-4:1 Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009
10-4:2 Stay of Execution of Ejectment for Residential Tenants
10-4:3 “Protected” Tenants Under Eviction Law
10-4:4 Veterans’ Administration Guaranteed Mortgages
10-4:5 When Ejectment Barred
10-4:6 Cash for Keys
10-4:7 Post-Foreclosure Disposition of Owner’s Personalty
10-5 The Deficiency Judgment
10-5:1 After Strict Foreclosure
10-5:2 After Foreclosure by Sale
10-6 Right of Contribution between Co-guarantors on Deficiency
10-7 New Registration Requirement for Foreclosed Properties

Chapter 11: The Receiver of Rents
11-1 The Basis for Appointment
11-2 The Motion for Appointment
11-2:1 Setting the Bond
11-2:2 Orders
11-2:3 Report
11-2:4 Discharge
11-2:5 Security Deposits
11-3 Utility Receivership Compared
11-4 Receiver for Tax Obligations

Chapter 12: Federal Liens
12-1 Introduction
12-2 The Threshold Issue: The United States as Defendant
12-3 Priorities Problems When the ­United States is a Party
12-3:1 Circular Priorities
12-4 Notice of Federal Tax Lien Filed Post-Lis Pendens
12-4:1 Foreclosure by Sale
12-4:2 Strict Foreclosure
12-5 Waiver of the Right of Redemption
12-6 Administrative Discharge

Chapter 13: Condominium Association Liens
13-1 Liens’ Special Status
13-1:1 The Statutory Scheme
13-1:2 Bylaw Notice Requirements Not Conclusive
13-1:3 Authority to Regulate Pets
13-1:4 Issues re Composition of Association’s Board
13-1:5 Proving the Association’s Debt
13-1:6 Priority
13-1:7 Pendente Lite Order of Common Charge Payment Disallowed
13-1:8 Handling Dual Priorities
13-1:9 New Statutory Prerequisites for Lien Foreclosure
13-1:10 Other New Statutory Provisions re Resale Certificate
13-2 The Statutorily Subordinated Mortgage
13-3 Duration of Lien
13-4 Receivership
13-5 Purchaser’s Liability for Unpaid Common Charges
13-6 Attorneys’ Fees
13-7 Fiduciary Duties of Association Officers
13-8 Association “Deficiency” Judgments
13-9 Judgment Liens against the Association
13-10 Federal Tax Liens Prime Association’s Lien

Chapter 14: Foreclosing Special Declarant Rights
14-1 Introduction
14-2 Identifying the Property to Be Foreclosed
14-3 Lender Options during Foreclosure
14-4 Lender Options after Foreclosure

Chapter 15: Mechanics’ Liens
15-1 Special Concerns
15-2 The Notice of Lis Pendens
15-2:1 The Statutory Framework
15-2:2 What Bass Does Not Hold
15-3 Service of the Mechanic’s Lien
15-3:1 Service on “Original Contractor”
15-4 The Complaint
15-4:1 Subdivisions
15-4:2 Property Description Not Affixed to Lien
15-4:3 “Made Solemn Oath...”
15-4:4 Home Improvement Contracts
15-4:5 Damages Allowed for Post-Lien Work
15-4:6 Misstatement of Commencement Date
15-5 The Parties
15-6 Additional Counts Based on Alternate Theories of Recovery
15-7 The Trial
15-7:1 Need for Final Judgment
15-7:2 Proof of Debt - Contract Price vs. Value of Labor and Materials
15-7:3 Limitation on Attorneys’ Fees
15-8 The Lien Waiver Defense
15-9 Reduction or Discharge of a Mechanic’s Lien
15-9:1 Venue and Service
15-9:2 Appeals
15-9:3 Appeal by Lienor
15-9:4 The Size of the Bond
15-9:5 Effect on a Foreclosure
15-9:6 Appeal by Owner
15-10 Dissolution of Mechanic’s Lien by Substitution of Bond
15-10:1 Qualified Applicant
15-10:2 Venue
15-10:3 Hearing
15-10:4 Appeal
15-10:5 Suit on Bond
15-10:6 Other Post-Bond Litigation

Chapter 16: Judgment Liens
16-1 Statutory Basis
16-1:1 “Caveat” Does Not Create Lien
16-1:2 Judgment Lien Securing Family Relations Decree
16-2 Lien Statutes Repealed
16-3 Form of the Lien
16-3:1 Absence of Lien Amount Does Not Invalidate Lien
16-4 Service of Lien Required
16-5 Installment Payments Stay Foreclosure
16-5:1 Reasonable Payments and Nominal Payments Distinguished
16-6 Partial Discharge of Excessive Lien
16-7 The Complaint
16-7:1 Relation-Back Rule Analyzed
16-7:2 Limitations on Right of Relation Back
16-7:3 Time From Which Attachment Holds
16-7:4 Non-Debtor Co-Obligor as Defendant
16-7:5 Collateral Attack on Underlying Judgment
16-8 Burden of Proof at Trial
16-9 Attorneys’ Fees
16-10 Deficiency Judgment Following Judgment Lien Foreclosure
16-11 Connecticut’s Homestead Exemption
16-11:1 Courts Begin to Define Scope of Exemption
16-11:2 How One Lien Creditor Avoided the Exemption
16-12 Judgment Lien Against Common Interest Community Association

Chapter 17: Connecticut Foreclosure ­Relief Programs
17-1 Foreclosure Moratorium Act
17-1:1 Legislative History
17-1:2 What Mortgages Are Subject to the Act?
17-1:3 Who Qualifies to Invoke Protection Under the Act?
17-1:4 How Is the Act’s Protection Invoked?
17-1:5 What Factors Does the Court Consider?
17-1:6 When Is the Debt Restructured?
17-1:7 How Is the Debt Restructured?
17-1:8 What Takes Place During the Restructuring Period?
17-1:9 How Is Interest Handled?
17-1:10 How Is the Prevailing Rate Computed?
17-1:11 Notice Requirement Eliminated
17-1:12 Time Limitations for Invoking Protection
17-2 An Act Concerning Responsible Lending and Economic Security
17-2:1 Lending Programs Old and New
17-2:2 The Homeowner’s Equity Recovery Opportunity Loan (“HERO”)
17-2:3 Continuation of the CT FAMLIES Program
17-2:4 Changes to the Emergency Mortgage Assistance Program (“EMAP”)
17-2:5 Foreclosure Mediation

Chapter 18: Federal Foreclosure Relief Programs
18-1 Home Affordable Modification ­Program (“HAMP”)
18-1:1 Qualifying Loan
18-1:2 No Constitutional Property Right to a HAMP Modification
18-2 Home Affordable Foreclosure ­Alternatives Program (“HAFA”)
18-2:1 Basic Qualifying Criteria Under HAFA
18-2:2 Short Sales
18-2:3 Deeds in Lieu of Foreclosure
18-2:4 Impact on Foreclosure Proceedings
18-2:5 Credit Reporting
18-2:6 Unresolved Issues
18-3 The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt ­Relief Act of 2007
18-4 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA Servicing Rule)
18-4:1 Definitions
18-4:2 Regulation X in the Foreclosure of a Consumer Mortgage


Chapter 19: Foreclosing Blanket Mortgages

19-1 First Mortgage Foreclosure
19-1:1 Strict Foreclosure
19-1:2 Foreclosure by Sale
19-2 Second Mortgage Foreclosure
19-2:1 Making Prior Mortgagee a Party
19-2:2 Structuring the Judgment
19-3 Cross-Obligors on Multiple ­Mortgages

Chapter 20: Appeals
20-1 Introduction
20-1:1 Noncompliance with Practice Book Notice Requirements Does Not Stay Appeal Period
20-1:2 Nunc Pro Tunc Dismissal Not Available
20-1:3 No Automatic Stay in Late Appeal
20-1:4 Appeal from Counterclaim Does Not Stay Judgment on Complaint
20-2 The Finality Test
20-2:1 Advisory Opinions
20-3 Strict Foreclosure
20-3:1 Mootness Issue Resolved
20-4 Foreclosure by Sale
20-4:1 Judgment of Foreclosure by Sale
20-4:2 Approval of Sale
20-4:3 Supplemental Judgment
20-5 Appointment of Receiver of Rents
20-5:1 Order for Disbursement of Receiver’s Funds
20-6 Motion to Open Judgment
20-6:1 Scope of Issues Properly Appealed From
20-6:2 New Practice Book Rule
20-6:3 Non-Compliance with Practice Book Default Rules
20-6:4 Effect of Tardy Return of Appraisal
20-6:5 The Homes of Westport Dilemma
20-7 Appeal by Committee
20-8 Appeal of Order Granting Application for Protection From Foreclosure
20-9 Appeal by Property Owner of Interlocutory Order
20-10 Motion to Strike
20-11 Motion for Summary Judgment
20-12 Execution of Ejectment
20-13 Motion to Intervene
20-14 Order to Pay Taxes During Appeal

Chapter 21: Standards of Title Relating to Foreclosures
21-1 Introduction
21-2 The Nature and Scope of a Notice of Lis Pendens in a Foreclosure Action (Standard 19.1)
21-3 Errors in the Certificate of Foreclosure (Standard 19.2)
21-3:1 Lien Foreclosures Distinguished
21-4 Failure to Release Foreclosed Encumbrance (Standard 19.3)
21-5 Statutory Continuance (Standard 19.4)
21-6 Conclusiveness of Judgment (Standard 19.5)
21-7 Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Relief Act (Standard 19.6)
21-8 Effect of Errors in Satisfaction of Judgment or Ancillary Documents (Standard 19.7)

Chapter 22: Lingering Problems
22-1 Introduction
22-2 The Marshalling Statute
22-3 Appropriation and Merger
22-4 Foreclosure Not Stayed by Federal Forfeiture Action

Chapter 23: Bankruptcy
23-1 Introduction
23-2 The Petition
23-3 The Proceeding
23-4 The Stay of Proceedings
23-4:1 Timing Rule on Hearings to Vacate Automatic Stay
23-4:2 Time for Filing Petition to Halt Foreclosure
23-4:3 Effect of Petition by Guarantor Upon a Pending Foreclosure Proceeding
23-4:4 Stay Against Non-debtor Tenant in Common Distinguished
23-4:5 Joint Tenancy Compels Another Result
23-4:6 Looking Beyond the Cases: Wood and Pelzar
23-4:7 The Automatic Stay May Not be as “Automatic” as We Once Thought—Canney and the BAPCPA Amendments
23-4:8 The State Court’s Interpretation of a Bankruptcy Court’s Order Lifting the Automatic Stay
23-5 Relief from Stay
23-6 Selected Issues of General Interest
23-6:1 De-acceleration
23-6:2 Who May Vote Under a Plan—Chapter 11 versus Chapter 13
23-6:3 The 1111(b) Election in a Chapter 11 Case
23-6:4 The Individual Chapter 11 Proceeding
23:6-5 Contents of a Chapter 11 Plan
23-6:6 Some Chapter 13 Considerations—Conversion, Modification and Lien Stripping
23-6:7 Sale of Real Property or Foreclosure?
23-6:8 Preferences and Fraudulent Conveyances
23-6:9 Proof of Claim
23-7 “Waterfall” Analysis of the ­Automatic Stay Provisions

Chapter 24: Bankruptcy Litigation
24-1 Introduction
24-2 Jurisdiction and Venue
24-2:1 Jurisdiction
24-2:2 Venue
24-3 Contested Matters
24-3:1 Defining a Contested Matter
24-3:2 Adversary Proceedings
24-4 The Filing of a Petition
24-4:1 Litigation
24-4:2 Determination of Secured Claims
24-4:3 Fraudulent Conveyances
24-4:4 Objections to Discharge Under Sections 523 and 727
24-4:5 Objections to Confirmation

Chapter 25: The Voidability of Foreclosure Titles in Connecticut After BFP v. Resolution Trust Corp.
25-1 The Historical Background
25-2 BFP v. Resolution Trust Corp.
25-3 Applying BFP in Connecticut
25-3:1 Foreclosure by Sale
25-3:2 Strict Foreclosure

Chapter 26: Connecticut Deeds in Lieu of Foreclosure: Lender Concerns and Title Issues
26-1 Introduction
26-2 Lenders’ Concerns
26-2:1 Consideration
26-2:2 Effect of an Unaccepted Tender of Deed
26-2:3 “Clogging” the Equity of Redemption
26-2:4 Merger of Title
26-2:5 Deed Absolute
26-2:6 Bankruptcy
26-2:7 Effect of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act
26-2:8 Conveyance Tax
26-3 Title Issues
26-3:1 Lender Title Issues
26-3:2 Insuring Good-Faith Purchasers
26-4 Conclusion

Chapter 27: Foreclosures Involving Failed Financial Institutions
27-1 Introduction
27-2 Foreclosure When Either FDIC or RTC Holds Subordinate Interest
27-2:1 The Historical Perspective: The Scope and Effect of 12 U.S.C. § 1825(b)(2)
27-2:2 The Historical Perspective: The Right of Redemption
27-2:3 The Resolution: The Statements of Policy and Standard 28.6
27-2:4 Additional Considerations
27-3 Foreclosure of Mortgage Held or Formerly Held by FDIC or RTC
27-3:1 The Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act and the Administrative Claims Process

Chapter 28: Omitted Parties in Foreclosures: A Proposal for Legislative Action
28-1 Introduction
28-1:1 Statute Is Not Self-Executing
28-1:2 The “Worthless” Lien Alternative Remedy
28-2 The Origin of Connecticut General Statutes § 49-30
28-2:1 The Standards of Title
28-3 Current Problems with Connecticut General Statutes § 49-30
28-3:1 Priorities
28-3:2 The Cost of Redemption
28-3:3 Foreclosure by Sale
28-3:4 Tenants
28-3:5 Federal Liens
28-4 Proposals for Revising Connecticut General Statutes § 49-30
28-4:1 Priorities
28-4:2 The Cost of Redemption
28-4:3 Foreclosure by Sale
28-4:4 Tenants
28-4:5 Federal Liens
28-5 Determining the Proper Plaintiff
28-6 The Bombero Decisions: Connecticut General Statutes § 49-30 Revisited and Reinterpreted
28-7 Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 29: Tax Collector Sales
29-1 Introduction
29-2 Prerequisites to Commencing Procedure
29-3 The Notice of Sale Requirements
29-3:1 Constitutionality Addressed
29-3:2 The First Notice of Sale
29-3:3 The Second Notice of Sale
29-4 The Sale
29-5 The Post-Sale Notice
29-6 The Tax Collector’s Deed
29-6:1 The Status of Title
29-6:2 The Affidavit
29-6:3 The Warranty Covenants
29-7 Redemption
29-7:1 The Redemption Process
29-8 Excess Proceeds
29-8:1 When There Is a Redemption
29-8:2 When There Is No Redemption
29-9 Challenging Validity of Deed
29-10 Federal Tax Liens
29-11 New Standards of Title Relating to Tax Collector Sales

Chapter 30: Secondary Mortgage Market
30-1 Introduction
30-2 Mortgage-Backed Securities
30-3 Standing Issues for Trustees and Servicing Agents
30-4 The MERS® System and Mortgage ­Electronic Registration Systems, Inc.
30-5 Standing in a MERS Foreclosure
30-6 MERS, the FDCPA, RESPA and the Connecticut and Federal Truth in Lending Acts
30-7 MERS as a Defendant
30-7:1 Service of Process on MERS
30-8 “Splitting” the Note and the Mortgage and Other MERS-Related Defenses

Chapter 31: Truth in Lending and Foreclosures
31-1 Introduction
31-2 The Scope of the Truth in Lending Act
31-2:1 The Mortgage Disclosure Improvement Act
31-2:2 The Home Ownership Equity Protection Act
31-2:3 The Disclosures Required Under the Federal Truth in Lending Act
31-3 Rebuttable Presumption of Delivery of the Required Notices
31-4 The Three-Day and Extended Rescission Periods
31-4:1 Effect of Failure to Properly Date Documents
31-4:2 Perfection of Statute of Limitations by Consumers for Extended Rescission Rights and Subsequent Lender’s Responsibilities
31-5 The Exercise of Extended Rescission Rights
31-6 The Effect of a Written Rescission Notice
31-7 Creditor Defenses to Extended Rescission Rights
31-8 Conditional Rescission Under TILA
31-9 Assignee Liability
31-10 Waiver of the Right to Rescind
31-11 A TILA Violation Can Be a CUTPA Violation
31-12 Special Considerations
31-13 Ability to Repay Standard
31-13:1 Dodd-Frank Definitions of Major Terms 15 USC 1639c(b) and 12 CFR 1026.43

Chapter 32: Defenses to Foreclosure
32-1 Introduction
32-1:1 “Making, Validity and Enforcement”
32-2 Common Law Defenses
32-2:1 Payment
32-2:2 Duress
32-2:3 Release
32-2:4 Lack of Consideration
32-2:5 Fraud in Factum
32-2:6 Fraud
32-2:7 Negligent Misrepresentation
32-2:8 Accord and Satisfaction
32-2:9 Abandonment of Security
32-2:10 Breach of Loan Modification Agreement
32-2:11 State Law Defenses not Pre-empted by Federal Law Due to HAMP
32-2:12 No Fiduciary Duty between Lender and a Borrower
32-2:13 Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel
32-2:14 Failure to Pay Rent as a Defense to a Commercial Mortgage Foreclosure
32-2:15 Robo-Signing
32-2:16 Breach of a Settlement Agreement
32-2:17 Modification Agreements
32-2:18 Challenge to the Debt
32-3 State Statutory Law Defenses
32-3:1 Usury
32-3:2 Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act (CUTPA)
32-3:3 Connecticut Abusive Home Loan Lending Practices Act
32-3:4 Defective Mortgage Instrument
32-3:5 Unlicensed Lender
32-3:6 Connecticut Protection from Foreclosure Act
32-3:7 Payoff Letter
32-3:8 Loan to Person only Secondarily Liable—Connecticut General Statutes § 49-4a
32-3:9 The Marshalling Statute—Connecticut General Statutes § 52-380i
32-3:10 Payment to Contractor—re Mechanic’s Lien Foreclosure
32-3:11 Conditions Precedent Under the Loan Documents
32-3:12 Failure to Release Mortgage
32-3:13 Sovereign Immunity
32-3:14 Statute of Limitations
32-3:15 Homestead Exemption
32-3:16 Conn. Gen. Stat. § 52-588 as a Defense
32-3:17 Death of a Party and § 52-600
32-3:18 Emergency Mortgage Assistance Program (“EMAP”)
32-4 Federal Law Defenses
32-4:1 Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
32-4:2 Truth in Lending
32-4:3 RESPA
32-4:4 The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
32-4:5 HUD Regulations
32-5 Equitable Defenses
32-5:1 The Clean Hands Doctrine
32-5:2 Meeting of the Minds
32-5:3 Breach of the Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing
32-5:4 Unconscionability
32-5:5 Equitable Estoppel
32-5:6 Equitable Subrogation
32-5:7 Bad Faith Settlement Practices
32-5:8 Laches
32-5:9 Predatory Lending
32-6 Counterclaims
32-6:1 Conn. Gen. Stat. § 49-13—Petition for Discharge of Mortgage
32-7 Jury Verdicts
32-8 Lender Defenses to Consumer Claims for Improper Loss Mitigation
32-8:1 The National Mortgage Settlement
32-8:2 The Troubled Assets Relief Program
32-8:3 National Banking Act
32-9 Lender Liability Claims Involving Loan Modification Negotiations

Chapter 33: Mortgage Fraud
33-1 Introduction
33-2 The Components of Overvaluation
33-2:1 Fraud
33-2:2 Wholesale Originations
33-2:3 Management
33-3 Liability of Loan Originators
33-4 Fraud by Appraisers
33-4:1 Overvaluation and Increased Default Risk
33-4:2 Loan-to-Value Ratios
33-5 Claims Against Appraisers
33-5:1 Federal Causes of Action - RICO (18 U.S.C. § 1961)
33-5:2 State Tort Claims
33-6 Claims Against Title Companies
33-7 Reporting Acts of Appraisers and Brokers to the Mortgage Asset Research Institute
33-8 Identity Theft
33-8:1 Forged Instruments
33-8:2 Remedies in Identity Theft Cases
33-9 Causation
33-10 Damages

Chapter 34: The Fair Credit Reporting Act
34-1 Background of the Fair Credit Reporting Act
34-2 Statutory Duties of Furnishers of Information
34-2:1 15 U.S.C. § 1681s-2(b) and Private Right of Action
34-3 Preemption of State Law
34-3:1 Total Preemption
34-3:2 Temporal Approach to Preemption
34-3:3 The “Statutory Approach” to Preemption
34-4 Damages

Chapter 35: Mobile Manufactured Homes
35-1 Introduction: Definitions
35-2 The Security Interest: Nature and Perfection
35-3 Foreclosure: Preliminary Considerations
35-4 The Removal Statement
35-5 The Foreclosure Complaint
35-6 Park Owner’s Sale as Alternative to Foreclosure
35-6:1 Contents of the Petition
35-6:2 Notice to Owner and Other Interested Persons
35-6:3 The Hearing
35-6:4 Conflict with Other Sale Provisions

Chapter 36: Foreclosures in Federal Court
36-1 Introduction
36-2 Federal Court Jurisdiction
36-3 Federal Civil Procedure
36-3:1 Commencing the Action
36-3:2 Mediations in Federal Court
36-3:3 Defaults
36-3:4 Judgment Hearings

Chapter 37: Foreclosure by Market Sale
37-1 Introduction
37-2 Definitions
37-3 The Notice Requirement Repealed
37-3:1 The Definitional Dilemma
37-3:2 The Notice: Requirements and Content
37-3:3 Limitation on Commencement and Further Prosecution of Foreclosure
37-4 Exploring a Possible Foreclosure by Market Sale
37-5 The Complaint
37-5:1 Procedure If Foreclosure Already Begun
37-6 Obtaining the Judgment
37-6:1 If the Court Denies FBMS
37-7 Right-of-First-Refusal Law Days
37-7:1 Law Day Priority Amended
37-8 The Role of the Committee
37-8:1 The Committee Deed
37-8:2 The Closing
37-9 The Supplemental Judgment
37-10 Deficiency Penalty Inapplicable

Chapter 38: Judgment of Loss Mitigation
38-1 Introduction
38-2 Definitions (Conn. Gen. Stat. § 49-30P)
38-3 Policy Behind the New Law
38-4 Types of Relief Afforded
38-4:1 Mortgage Modification
38-4:2 Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure
38-4:3 Short Sale
38-5 Statutory Scheme—Modifications and Deeds in Lieu
38-6 Statutory Scheme—Short Sales
38-7 Consequences of Judgment Not Entering
38-8 Rights of Junior Lienors
38-9 Conveyance Tax Exemption

Table of Cases
Table of Statutes and Codes
Table of Practice Book