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Connecticut Criminal Procedure

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Carl J. Schuman


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“Hands down the best book on the market dealing with criminal defense issues in Connecticut. The authors have compiled the essential case law and strategies that every lawyer in Connecticut who touches a criminal case should know.” - James O. Ruane, Esq., Incoming President of the Connecticut Criminal Defense Bar Association

Written by a talented, experienced, and diverse team of lawyers from the judiciary, academia, the offices of state and federal prosecutors, the office of the state public defender, and the private bar.  Follow the process from arrest to post-conviction motions, using the top best practices of Connecticut’s Criminal Bar. 

Only Connecticut Criminal Procedure Incorporates the Most Recent Developments in:

  • Danger of eyewitness identifications
  • Restrictions existing on the search of the contents of cell phones
  • Post-conviction petitions for the discovery of DNA evidence
  • Standards for the admission of computer-generated evidence
  • The state death penalty


CONTRIBUTORS

ARRESTS AND IDENTIFICATIONS
Shelly R. Sadin, Dean, Quinnipiac University School of Law

CONFESSIONS AND STATEMENTS
Robert Spector, US Attorney's Office, New Haven Office

SEARCH AND SEIZURE
Stanley A. Twardy Jr.,  Day Pitney
Elizabeth Latif,  Day Pitney

GRAND JURY, ARRAIGNMENT, TRANSFERS FROM JUVENILE COURT, BAIL AND PROBABLE CAUSE HEARINGS
Michael A. Gailor, Executive Assistant State's Attorney

DOUBLE JEOPARDY,  PRE- ARREST DELAY, SPEEDY TRIAL, AND PROSECUTORIAL DISCRETION
Pat Tomasiewicz, Fazzano & Tomasiewicz

NOTICE, JOINDER AND SEVERANCE,LIMITATIONS, AND OTHER STATE LAW ISSUES
Harry Weller, Assistant State's Attorney

DISCOVERY AND DEPOSITIONS
Damon Kirschbaum, Law Firm, LLC

DISPOSITION WITHOUT TRIAL
Richard  R. Brown, Brown Paindiris & Scott

COMPETENCE OF THE DEFENDANT
Carl J. Schuman, Judge, Superior Court

RIGHT TO COUNSEL
John Danaher III, Judge, Superior Court

JURY RIGHT, SELECTION, AND MISCONDUCT
Barbara Bailey Jongbloed, Judge, Superior Court

FIFTH AND SIXTH AMENDMENT ISSUES AT TRIAL
Robert J. Enright, Retired partner, McGann, Bartlett & Brown, LLC

PRESENTING THE CASE AT TRIAL - PART I (OPENING STATEMENTS, WITNESSES, PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE, COMMON RELEVANCY OBJECTIONS AND ISSUES OF ADMISSIBILITY, EXPERT TESTIMONY)
Robert M. Frost   Jr., Frost Bussert, LLC
Erica Barber, Frost Bussert, LLC

PRESENTING THE CASE AT TRIAL – PART II (JURY INSTRUCTIONS, CLOSING ARGUMENT, VERDICT / JUDGMENT)
Robert M. Frost  Jr., Frost Bussert
Erica Barber, Frost Bussert, LLC

SENTENCING
James Bergenn, Shipman & Goodwin

POST-CONVICTION MOTIONS AND PETITIONS
Conrad Ost Seifert, Seifert & Hogan

ctcriminalproc

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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: The Connecticut Law Tribune
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 1
  • Page Count: 1012
  • ISBN: 978-1-62881-583-2
  • Pub#/SKU#: QBKCP19
  • Pub Date: 02/28/2019

Author Image
  • Carl J. Schuman

About the Editor

            Judge Schuman was nominated to become a judge of the superior court by Governor John Rowland in December,1997. His assignments have included the G.A. criminal docket, the child protection session, civil and criminal jury trials, complex civil litigation,and habeas corpus matters. He is currently the presiding judge of the state tax and administrative appeals section in the New Britain Judicial District.

            Judge Schuman has authored approximately 400 written opinions. He is also the author of some 16 articles on constitutional law, criminal law, and various other legal subjects.


CONTRIBUTORS:

  • Shelly R. Sadin, Dean, Quinnipiac University School of Law
  • Robert Spector, US Attorney's Office, New Haven Office
  • Stanley A. Twardy Jr., Day Pitney
  • Elizabeth Latif, Day Pitney
  • Michael A. Gailor, Executive Assistant State's Attorney
  • Pat Tomasiewicz, Fazzano & Tomasiewicz
  • Harry Weller, Assistant State's Attorney
  • Damon Kirschbaum, Law Firm, LLC
  • Richard  R. Brown, Brown Paindiris & Scott
  • John Danaher III, Judge, Superior Court
  • Barbara Bailey Jongbloed, Judge, Superior Court
  • Robert J. Enright, Retired partner, McGann, Bartlett & Brown, LLC
  • Robert M. Frost Jr., Frost Bussert
  • Erica Barber, Frost Bussert, LLC
  • James Bergenn, Shipman & Goodwin
  • Conrad Ost Seifert, Seifert & Hogan

         



Chapter 1: Arrests and Identifications................................................................................ 1

1-1 ARRESTS................................................................................ 1

1-1:1 State and Federal Constitutional Foundations................................................................................ 1

1-1:1.1 The Connecticut Constitution................................................................................ 1

1-1:1.2 The United States Constitution................................................................................ 4

1-1:1.3 The State and Federal Constitutions Are Similar But Not Identical................................................................................ 5

1-1:1.4 Reasonableness and Warrant Clauses................................................................................ 6

1-1:2 The Fourth Amendment Protects People, Not Places................................................................................ 7

1-1:3 Government Action Required................................................................................ 8

1-1:4 Conduct Constituting a Seizure................................................................................ 9

1-1:4.1 Arrests................................................................................ ................................................................................ 9

1-1:4.2 Investigatory Detentions (‘Stops’)................................................................................ 10

1-1:5 Probable Cause Required for Arrest................................................................................ 12

1-1:5.1 Probable Cause Based on Objective, Reasonable Assessment of the Totality of the
             Circumstances Surrounding the Arrest................................................................................ 13

1-1:5.2 Bases for Probable Cause................................................................................ 16

1-1:5.2a Officers’ Direct Observations.............................................................................. 16

1-1:5.2b Informants and Tipsters................................................................................ ................................................................................ 18

1-1:5.2c Seized Evidence and Admissions................................................................................ 19

1-1:6 Citizen’s Arrests Permitted Upon Probable Cause................................................................................ 20

1-1:7 Knock and Announce................................................................................ 21

1-1:8 Use of Force................................................................................ 22

1-1:9 Arrest Warrants................................................................................ 25

1-1:9.1 Warrant Generally, But Not Invariably, Required................................................................................ 25

1-1:9.2 Warrant Requirements: Sworn Evidence and Particularity................................................................................ 26

1-1:9.3 Obtaining and Issuing a Warrant................................................................................ 26

1-1:9.3a Review by Neutral Magistrate............................................. 26

1-1:9.3b Issuance................................................................................ ................................................................................ 27

1-1:9.3c Sealing................................................................................ ................................................................................ 28

1-1:9.4 Executing a Warrant................................................................................ 28

1-1:9.5 Withdrawing a State Warrant................................................................................ 28

1-1:10 Warrantless Arrests................................................................................ 29

1-1:10.1 State and Federal Constitutions................................................................................ 29

1-1:10.2 Statutes and Practice Book Rules................................................................................ 32

1-1:11 Racial Profiling................................................................................ 34

1-1:11.1 Federal and State Constitutions................................................................................ 34

1-1:11.2 State Statutes................... ................................................................................ 35

1-1:12 Challenges to Arrests; Franks v. Delaware................................................................................ 36

1-1:13 Remedies for Invalid Arrest................................................................................ 37

1-2 IDENTIFICATIONS................................................................................ 38

1-2:1 Risks of Misidentification................................................................................ 38

1-2:2 Federal and State Constitutional Foundations................................................................................ 40

1-2:3 Right to Counsel................................................................................ 41

1-2:3.1 Right to Counsel Attends ‘Critical Stage’ Proceedings................................................................................ 41

1-2:3.2 Critical Stage Identifications................................................................................ 42

1-2:4 Right to Due Process................................................................................ 43

1-2:4.1 Right to Due Process Applies to Pretrial Identification Proceedings.............................................................. 43

1-2:4.2 Government Conduct................................................................................ 44

1-2:4.3 In-Court Identification Procedures................................................................................ 46

1-2:5 Constitutional Violations and Remedies................................................................................ 47

1-2:5.1 Right to Counsel................................................................................ ................................................................................ 47

1-2:5.2 Due Process................................................................................ ................................................................................ 48

1-2:5.2a Resemblance and Opinion Testimony; State Law Issues................................................................................ 49

1-2:5.2b Suggestibility................................................................................ ................................................................................ 50

1-2:5.2c Reliability Following an Unnecessarily Suggestive Identification Procedure...................................................................... 52

1-2:6 Non-Constitutional Protections................................................................................ 54

1-2:6.1 Connecticut General Statutes § 54-1p ................................................................................ 54

1-2:6.2 Jury Instructions................................................................................ ................................................................................ 57

1-2:6.3 Expert Testimony................................................................................ ................................................................................ 58

1-2:7 Research and Law on Identifications Continue to Develop................................................................................ 60


Chapter 2: Confessions and Statements................................................................................ 63

2-1 FIFTH AMENDMENT RIGHT TO REMAIN SILENT................................................................................ 63

2-1:1 Miranda Warnings................................................................................ 64

2-1:1.1 Pre-Arrest Interrogation; Roadside Stops................................................................................ 64

2-1:1.2 Custody................................................................................ ................................................................................ 65

2-1:1.3 Interrogation................................................................................ ................................................................................ 68

2-1:1.4 Booking Exception................................................................................ ................................................................................ 69

2-1:1.5 Public Safety Exception................................................................................ 70

2-1:2 Waiver of Miranda Rights................................................................................ 71

2-1:2.1 Validity of the Waiver................................................................................ 71

2-1:2.2 Notification of Presence of an Attorney................................................................................ 74

2-1:2.3 Two-Step Interrogation................................................................................ 75

2-1:3 Invocation of Right to Counsel or Right to Remain Silent................................................................................ 77

2-1:4 Voluntariness................................................................................ 79

2-1:4.1 Coercion................................................................................................................................................................ 80

2-1:4.2 Conditions of the Interview................................................................................ 81

2-1:4.3 Characteristics of the Defendant................................................................................ 81

2-1:4.4 Statements by Juveniles................................................................................ 82

2-1:5 Standard of Review and Burden of Proof................................................................................ 84

2-1:5.1 Defendant’s Burden to Establish Custodial Interrogation................................................................................ 84

2-1:5.2 State’s Burden to Establish Miranda and Voluntariness................................................................................ 85

2-2 CONFESSIONS AND THE SIXTH AMENDMENT RIGHT TO COUNSEL................................................................................ 85

2-3 SPECIAL RULES OF ADMISSIBILITY................................................................................ 85

2-3:1 Use of Statements Taken in Violation of Fifth and Sixth Amendment Rights................................................................................ 86

2-3:1.1 Cross-Examination................................................................................ ................................................................................ 86

2-3:1.2 Search Warrant Affidavits................................................................................ 87

2-3:1.3 Physical Fruits of Statements Taken in Violation of Fifth Amendment................................................................................ 88

2-3:2 Use of Statements Taken in Violation of Fourth Amendment Rights................................................................................ 88

2-3:3 Use of a Defendant’s Silence and Invocation of Rights................................................................................ 90

2-3:3.1 Pre-Arrest................................................................................ ................................................................................ 90

2-3:3.2 Post-Arrest................................................................................ ................................................................................ 92

2-3:3.3 Use in the Description of the Investigation................................................................................ 94

2-3:4 Admissibility of Co-Defendant’s Confession................................................................................ 94

2-3:5 Admissibility of Statements Related to Guilty Pleas................................................................................ 96

2-3:6 Admissibility of Statements Taken During Psychological Evaluations................................................................................ 97

2-4 STATE CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY RIGHTS................................................................................ 97

2-4:1 Due Process Right to Counsel and Right to Remain Silent................................................................................ 98

2-4:2 State Constitutional Right to Counsel................................................................................ 99

2-4:3 Admissibility of Statements and Confessions—State vs. Federal Constitution................................................................................ 100

2-4:4 Filing a Motion to Suppress Under Practice Book § 41-12................................................................................ 100

2-4:5 Electronic Recording of Post-Arrest Statements................................................................................ 101

2-4:5.1 Constitutional Requirements................................................................................ 102

2-4:5.2 Statutory Rules (Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-1o)................................................................................ 102

2-4:5.3 Presumption of Inadmissibility Absent Recording................................................................................ 104

2-4:6 Admissibility of a Confession Under Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-1c........................................................................ 104


Chapter 3: Search and Seizure................................................................................ 107

3-1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 107

3-1:1 Defining Search and Standing................................................................................ 108

3-1:1.1 Generally................................................................................ ................................................................................ 108

3-1:1.2 GPS Devices................................................................................ ................................................................................ 110

3-1:1.3 Sense-Enhancing Technology................................................................................ 110

3-1:1.4 Canine Sniff................................................................................ ................................................................................ 110

3-1:1.5 Curtilage................................................................................ ................................................................................ 111

3-1:1.6 Conversations................................................................................ ................................................................................ 112

3-1:2 Defining Seizure................................................................................ 112

3-2 SEARCH WARRANTS................................................................................ 113

3-2:1 Introduction................................................................................ 113

3-2:1.1 Statutory Requirements Generally................................................................................ 113

3-2:1.2 Anticipatory Warrants................................................................................ 114

3-2:1.3 Warrants for Searches of Media................................................................................ 114

3-2:2 Probable Cause................................................................................ 115

3-2:2.1 General Rule................................................................................ ................................................................................ 115

3-2:2.2 Particularity................................................................................ ................................................................................ 116

3-2:2.3 Informants................................................................................ ................................................................................ 116

3-2:3 Franks v. Delaware................................................................................ 117

3-2:4 Wiretaps and Electronic Surveillance................................................................................ 118

3-3 WARRANTLESS SEARCHES AND SEIZURES................................................................................ 120

3-3:1 Investigatory Stops and Frisks................................................................................ 120

3-3:1.1 What is a Stop?................................................................................ 120

3-3:1.2 Reasonable Suspicion................................................................................ 121

3-3:1.3 Scope and Purpose of the Stop................................................................................ 121

3-3:1.4 Stop and Frisk................................................................................ 123

3-3:2 Exigent Circumstances................................................................................ 123

3-3:3 Search Incident to Arrest................................................................................ 125

3-3:4 Automobile Exception................................................................................ 127

3-3:5 Container Searches................................................................................ 128

3-3:6 Inventory Searches................................................................................ 129

3-3:7 Consent Searches................................................................................ 129

3-3:7.1 Voluntariness...... ................................................................................ 129

3-3:7.2 Scope................................................................................ ................................................................................ 130

3-3:7.3 Third-Party Consent................................................................................ 131

3-3:7.4 Apparent Authority................................................................................ 132

3-3:8 Plain View................................................................................ 132

3-3:8.1 General Rule................................................................................ ................................................................................ 132

3-3:8.2 Plain Touch................................................................................ ................................................................................ 133

3-3:9 Lawful Temporary Seizure Later Supported by Probable Cause................................................................................ 133

3-4 MISCELLANEOUS WARRANTLESS AND STATUTORY SEARCHES................................................................................ 134

3-4:1 Searches Involving Technical Devices or Digital Information................................................................................ 134

3-4:2 Strip Searches................................................................................ 136

3-4:3 Special Needs Searches................................................................................ 137

3-4:3.1 Generally................................................................................ ................................................................................ 137

3-4:3.2 Drug and Alcohol Testing................................................................................ 138

3-4:3.3 Traffic Check Points................................................................................ 138

3-4:3.4 Searches in Public Schools................................................................................ 138

3-4:3.5 DNA Samples................................................................................ ................................................................................ 139

3-4:3.6 Blood Samples................................................................................ ................................................................................ 139

3-4:3.7 Administrative Search Warrants................................................................................ 140

3-5 EXCLUSIONARY RULE................................................................................ 140

3-5:1 Good Faith Exception................................................................................ 140

3-5:2 Fruit of the Poisonous Tree................................................................................ 141

3-5:3 Inevitable Discovery Rule................................................................................ 141

3-5:4 Independent Source Doctrine................................................................................ 142

3-5:5 New Crimes Exception................................................................................ 142

3-6 MOTIONS TO SUPPRESS................................................................................ 142

3-7 RETURN OF SEIZED PROPERTY................................................................................ 143


Chapter 4: Grand Jury, Arraignment, Transfers From Juvenile Court, Bail and Probable Cause Hearings..................145

4-1 GRAND JURY................................................................................ 145

4-1:1 Crimes for Which an Investigatory Grand Jury May be Used................................................................................ 147

4-1:2 Application Process................................................................................ 147

4-1:3 Appointment of an Investigatory Grand Jury................................................................................ 149

4-1:4 Conduct of the Investigation................................................................................ 150

4-1:4.1 Secrecy................................................................................ ................................................................................ 150

4-1:4.2 Assistance of Counsel................................................................................ 152

4-1:4.3 Grand Jury Subpoenas................................................................................ 152

4-1:4.4 Failure to Comply with Subpoena................................................................................ 154

4-1:4.5 Questioning Witnesses................................................................................ 155

4-1:4.6 Rights of the Target................................................................................ ................................................................................ 156

4-1:4.7 Invocation of the Fifth Amendment................................................................................ 156

4-1:5 Finding................................................................................ ................................................................................ 158

4-1:6 Secrecy After the Conclusion of the Investigation................................................................................ 159

4-1:6.1 The Application and the Summary................................................................................ 159

4-1:6.2 The Finding................................................................................ ................................................................................ 161

4-1:6.3 The Record................................................................................ ................................................................................ 164

4-1:6.4 Appeal of Orders Relating to Disclosure and Further................................................................................ 165

4-1:6.5 Further Disclosure................................................................................ ................................................................................ 165

4-2 JUVENILE TRANSFERS................................................................................ 166

4-2:1 The Juvenile Justice System................................................................................ 166

4-2:2 Mandatory Transfers................................................................................ 171

4-2:3 Discretionary Transfers................................................................................ 173

4-2:4 Transfer of Serious Juvenile Repeat Offenders................................................................................ 175

4-2:5 Youthful Offender Status and Other Consequences of Transfer to Adult Court................................................................................ 176

4-2:6 Returning Cases to Juvenile Court................................................................................ 178

4-3 ARRAIGNMENT................................................................................ 179

4-3:1 Timing................................................................................ 180

4-3:2 Place of Arraignment................................................................................ 182

4-3:3 Advisement of Rights................................................................................ 184

4-3:4 Right to Counsel................................................................................ 185

4-3:5 Judicial Determination of Probable Cause................................................................................ 185

4-3:6 Advisement of the Charges and Pleas................................................................................ 189

4-3:7 Release................................................................................ 189

4-3:8 Arraignment on a Charge of Violation of Probation or Conditional Discharge........................................ 190

4-3:9 Family Violence................................................................................ 190

4-3:10 Crime Victims................................................................................ 192

4-4 BAIL AND CONDITIONS OF RELEASE.............................................................................. 193

4-4:1 Constitutional Right to Bail................................................................................ 194

4-4:2 Promises to Appear and Bond................................................................................ 198

4-4:3 Nonfinancial Conditions of Release................................................................................ 200

4-4:4 Setting of Conditions of Release in Warrant................................................................................ 202

4-4:5 Release by Law Enforcement Officials................................................................................ 204

4-4:6 Release by the Bail Commissioner................................................................................ 207

4-4:7 Release by the Court................................................................................ 211

4-4:8 Posting of Bail................................................................................ 213

4-4:9 Modification of the Conditions of Release................................................................................ 214

4-4:10 Release of Person Taken Into Custody on a Capias................................................................................ 218

4-4:11 Release After Conviction................................................................................ 219

4-4:12 Forfeiture of Bonds for Failure to Appear................................................................................ 222

4-4:13 Termination of Bail Bonds................................................................................ 224

4-4:14 Appellate Review of Orders Concerning Release on Bail................................................................................ 224

4-5 PROBABLE CAUSE HEARINGS................................................................................ 225

4-5:1 Persons Entitled to Probable Cause Hearing................................................................................ 227

4-5:2 Timing................................................................................ 228

4-5:3 The Probable Cause Standard................................................................................ 229

4-5:4 Waiver................................................................................ 232

4-5:5 The Hearing................................................................................ 233


Chapter 5: Double Jeopardy, Pre-Arrest Delay, Speedy Trial, and Prosecutorial Discretion............................ 239

5-1 DOUBLE JEOPARDY................................................................................ 239

5-1:1 Types of Proceedings................................................................................ 240

5-1:2 “Same Offense”................................................................................ 241

5-1:2.1 The Two Prong Test of Blockburger v. United States and De Facto Third Prong of  Considerations of Legislative Intent.............................. 242

5-1:2.2 “Same Act or Transaction”................................................................................ 243

5-1:2.2a “Completed Offenses”................................................................................ 244

5-1:2.2b Multiple Victims................................................................................ 247

5-1:2.3 “Same Offense”................................................................................ 248

5-1:2.3a Lesser Included Offenses and Other Distinct Statutory Provisions................................................................................ 249

5-1:2.3a1 Offenses Found to Have Been Greater and Lesser Included Offenses............................................................. 250

5-1:2.3a2 Distinct Statutory Provisions That Do Not Constitute the Same Offense...................................................... 252

5-1:2.3b Same Statute, Different Subsections................................................................................ 258

5-1:2.4 Considerations of Legislative Intent................................................................................ 260

5-1:3 Attachment of Jeopardy................................................................................ 262

5-1:3.1 Generally................................................................................ 262

5-1:3.2 Following a Guilty Plea or a Plea of Nolo Contendere...................................... 263

5-1:4 Retrial Following Acquittal................................................................................ 264

5-1:4.1 Generally................................................................................ 264

5-1:4.2 Retrial Following Dismissal................................................................................ 266

5-1:5 Retrial Following Conviction and Appeal................................................................................ 267

5-1:6 Multiple Punishments for the “Same Offense” in a Single Prosecution....................................... 269

5-1:6.1 Multiplicity................................................................................ 269

5-1:6.2 Remedy for Multiple Punishments for the Same Offense When Imposed in a Single Prosecution................. 271

5-1:7 Collateral Estoppel................................................................................ 272

5-1:8 Retrial Following Mistrial................................................................................ 273

5-1:8.1 Mistrial Declared Without the Consent of the Defendant................................................................................ 274

5-1:8.2 Mistrial Declared with the Defendant’s Express or Implied Consent................................................................................ 276

5-1:9 Increased Sentence Upon Resentencing................................................................................ 277

5-1:9.1 Increased Sentence upon Discovery of an Illegal Sentence................................................................................ 278

5-1:9.2 Increased Sentence Without Retrial or Illegality................................................................................ 278

5-1:9.3 Increased Sentence after an Appeal and Retrial................................................................................ 279

5-1:10 Dual Sovereignty................................................................................ 280

5-1:11 Timing of the Challenge................................................................................ 281

5-2 PRE-ARREST DELAY................................................................................ 281

5-2:1 Generally................................................................................ 281

5-2:2 Statute of Limitations Distinguished................................................................................ 282

5-2:3 Pre-Arrest Delay Under Due Process................................................................................ 282

5-2:3.1 “Substantial, Actual Prejudice”................................................................................ 283

5-2:3.2 Reasons for the Delay................................................................................ 283

5-3 THE RIGHT TO A SPEEDY TRIAL................................................................................ 284

5-3:1 Generally................................................................................ 284

5-3:2 The Constitutional Right to a Speedy Trial................................................................................ 285

5-3:2.1 Underlying Guarantees: Balancing of Interests................................................................................ 285

5-3:2.2 The Multi-Factor Test—Barker v. Wingo................................................................................ 285

5-3:2.2a Length of the Delay................................................................................ 286

5-3:2.2b Reason for the Delay................................................................................ 287

5-3:2.2c The Defendant’s Assertion of His Right................................................................................ 288

5-3:2.2d Prejudice to the Defendant................................................................................ 289

5-3:2.2d1 Oppressive Pretrial Incarceration................................................................................ 290

5-3:2.2d2 Anxiety and Concern of the Accused................................................................................ 291

5-3:2.2d3 Impairment of the Defense................................................................................ 291

5-3:2.3 Remedy for a Violation of a Defendant’s Constitutional Right to a Speedy Trial................................... 293

5-3:3 The Statutory and Practice Book Right to a Speedy Trial................................................................................ 293

5-3:3.1 Generally................................................................................ 293

5-3:3.2 Statutory Requirements................................................................................ 294

5-3:3.3 Practice Book Requirements................................................................................ 294

5-3:3.3a Rules for Providing a Speedy Trial................................................................................ 294

5-3:3.3b Excludable Time................................................................................ 296

5-4 PROSECUTORIAL DISCRETION................................................................................ 297

5-4:1 Generally................................................................................ 297

5-4:2 Selective Prosecution................................................................................ 298

5-4:3 Vindictive Prosecution................................................................................ 300


Chapter 6: Notice, Joinder and Severance, Limitations, and Other State Law Issues.............. 303

6-1 NOTICE................................................................................ 303

6-1:1 The Protection Against Ex Post Facto Laws................................................................................ 303

6-1:2 Void for Vagueness-What Conduct is Prohibited................................................................................ 305

6-1:3 Notice of Charges Against a Defendant................................................................................ 307

6-1:3.1 Adequacy of Notice: Elements, Time, Place, Extent of Culpability....................................... 309

6-1:3.2 Part B Information................................................................................ 311

6-1:3.3 Amendments................................................................................ 312

6-1:3.4 Variance Between Crime as Alleged and Particularized and State’s Proof....................... 315

6-2 JOINDER/SEVERANCE................................................................................ 316

6-2:1 Joinder of Offenses................................................................................ 316

6-2:1.1 Cross-Admissible Cases................................................................................ 318

6-2:1.2 Non Cross-Admissible Cases................................................................................ 319

6-2:1.2a Distinguishable Factual Incidents................................................................................ 320

6-2:1.2b A Joined Crime Evincing More Brutal Conduct................................................................................ 321

6-2:1.2c Duration and Complexity of the Trial................................................................................ 322

6-2:1.3 Joinder and the Defendant’s Right to Testify................................................... 322

6-2:1.4 Duplicity and Multiplicity of Charges.......................................................... 324

6-2:2 Joinder of Defendants................................................................................ 326

6-2:2.1 Joint Trial Creating a Bruton Violation................................................................................ 327

6-2:2.2 Antagonistic Defenses................................................................................ 327

6-3 LIMITATIONS ON PROSECUTIONS................................................................................ 328

6-3:1 The Trial Court’s Jurisdiction—Generally................................................................................ 329

6-3:2 Federal Preemption................................................................................ 330

6-3:3 Repeal of a Criminal Law................................................................................ 331

6-3:4 Statutes of Limitations................................................................................ 332

6-3:4.1 The Statute of Limitations as a Question of Law................................................................................ 333

6-3:4.2 Statute of Limitations as an Affirmative Defense................................................................................ 335

6-3:4.3 Waiver of Statute of Limitations Defense................................................................................ 336

6-3:5 Delay in Prosecution Implicating Due Process................................................................................ 336

6-3:6 Prosecuting Children................................................................................ 337


Chapter 7: Discovery and Depositions................................................................................ 339

7-1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 339

7-2 GENERAL DISCOVERY PROCEDURES................................................................................ 341

7-2:1 Introduction................................................................................ 341

7-2:2 Court’s Duty to Regulate Discovery................................................................................ 342

7-2:3 Good Faith Efforts and Subpoenas................................................................................ 343

7-2:4 Continuing Obligation to Disclose................................................................................ 343

7-2:5 Time Limitations on Requests or Motions................................................................................ 344

7-2:6 Failure to Comply with Disclosure................................................................................ 345

7-2:7 Expectation of Cooperative Disclosure................................................................................ 347

7-2:8 Procedures for Making and Responding to Discovery Requests and Motions................................................................................ 347

7-2:9 Objection to Disclosure................................................................................ 350

7-2:10 Presence During Tests and Experiments................................................................................ 351

7-2:11 Custody of Materials................................................................................ 351

7-2:12 Protective Orders................................................................................ 353

7-2:12.1 Availability of Protective Orders to the Prosecuting Authority and the Defendant................................................................................ 353

7-2:12.2 Grounds for Protective Orders................................................................................ 353

7-2:12.3 In Camera Proceedings................................................................................ 354

7-2:12.4 Excision as Protective Order................................................................................ 355

7-3 DISCLOSURE BY THE PROSECUTING AUTHORITY................................................................................ 356

7-3:1 Introduction................................................................................ 356

7-3:2 Mandatory Disclosure by the Prosecuting Authority................................................................................ 356

7-3:2.1 Exculpatory and Otherwise Favorable Information and Materials; Brady v. Maryland........................... 356

7-3:2.1a Favorable Evidence, Exculpatory Evidence, and Impeachment Evidence Defined........................................ 356

7-3:2.1b The Prosecuting Authority’s Duty to Find Favorable Evidence......................................................... 357

7-3:2.1c The Prosecuting Authority’s Duty to Preserve Favorable Evidence...................................... 357

7-3:2.1d The Prosecuting Authority’s Duty to Disclose Favorable Evidence.............................................. 358

7-3:2.1e The Prosecuting Authority’s Duty to Correct False and Misleading Evidence.......................................... 360

7-3:2.2 Books, Tangible Objects, Papers, Photographs, and Documents................................................................................ 361

7-3:2.3 Copies of the Defendant’s Prior Criminal Record................................................................................ 362

7-3:2.4 Reports and Statements of Experts................................................................................ 362

7-3:2.5 Arrest Warrants and Search and Seizure Warrants................................................................................ 363

7-3:2.6 Statements................................................................................ 363

7-3:2.7 Names, Address, Criminal Records, and Criminal Charges of Witnesses................................................................................ 364

7-3:2.8 Law Enforcement Reports................................................................................ 364

7-3:3 Discretionary Disclosure by the Prosecuting Authority................................................................................ 365

7-3:3.1 Confidential and Privileged Information and Materials................................................................................ 365

7-3:3.1a The Distinction Between Confidential and Privileged Information and Materials........................ 365

7-3:3.1b Constitutional Rights of the Defendant to Access Confidential and Privileged Materials............... 366

7-3:3.1c Obtaining Access to Privileged Information and Materials: the Bruno-Esposito Procedures.................. 367

7-3:3.1d Procedures for Obtaining Access to Confidential Information and Materials................................................ 370

7-3:3.2 Disclosure of Uncharged Misconduct Evidence................................................................................ 370

7-3:3.3 Disclosure of the Identity of Confidential Informants................................................................................ 370

7-3:4 Information and Materials Not Subject to Disclosure by the Prosecuting Authority................................................ 372

7-4 DISCLOSURE BY THE DEFENDANT................................................................................ 372

7-4:1 Introduction................................................................................ 372

7-4:2 Mandatory Disclosure by the Defendant................................................................................ 373

7-4:2.1 Mental State Evidence................................................................................ 373

7-4:2.1a Notice by the Defendant of the Intent to Use the Defense of Mental Disease or Defect or Extreme Emotional Disturbance................373

7-4:2.1b Notice by the Defendant of Intention to Use Expert Testimony Regarding Mental State.................................................................... 373

7-4:2.1c Disclosure of Reports of Physical or Mental Examinations..................................... 374

7-4:2.1d Prosecutorial Motion for Psychiatric Examination...................................................... 374

7-4:2.1e Failure of Expert to Submit Report................................................................................ 375

7-4:2.2 Alibi Defense................................................................................ 375

7-4:2.2a Notice By the Defendant of the Defense of Alibi................................................................................ 375

7-4:2.2b Notice by the Prosecuting Authority Concerning Alibi Defense................................................................................ 376

7-4:2.2c Continuing Duty of Parties to Disclose Regarding Alibi Defense................................................................................ 376

7-4:2.2d Exceptions................................................................................ 376

7-4:2.2e Inadmissibility of Withdrawn Alibi................................................................................ 377

7-4:2.3 Other Information and Materials................................................................................ 377

7-4:2.4 Derivative Evidence to be Provided to the Defendant................................................................................ 377

7-4:3 Discretionary Disclosure by the Defendant................................................................................ 378

7-4:3.1 Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 378

7-4:3.1a Obtaining Non-Testimonial Evidence From the Defendant................................................................................ 378

7-4:3.1b Emergency Procedure Regarding Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 378

7-4:3.1c Scope of Order for Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 379

7-4:3.1d Contents of Order for Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 380

7-4:3.1e Service of Order for Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 380

7-4:3.1f Implementation of Order for Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 380

7-4:3.1g Obtaining Non-Testimonial Evidence From the Defendant Upon Motion of the Defendant........................ 381

7-4:3.1h Comparing Non-Testimonial Evidence................................................................................ 381

7-4:3.2 Other Evidence................................................................................ 382

7-4:4 Information and Materials Not Subject to Disclosure by the Defendant................................................................................ 382

7-4:5 Admissibility at Time of Trial................................................................................ 382

7-5 DEPOSITIONS................................................................................ 383

7-5:1 Introduction................................................................................ 383

7-5:2 Grounds for Taking Depositions................................................................................ 384

7-5:3 Failure to Appear for Depositions................................................................................ 384

7-5:4 Use of Depositions................................................................................ 384

7-5:5 Notice and Person Taking Depositions................................................................................ 385

7-5:6 Protective Orders Prior to Depositions................................................................................ 385

7-5:7 Manner of Taking Depositions................................................................................ 385

7-5:8 Scope of Examination at Depositions................................................................................ 386

7-5:9 Objections at Depositions................................................................................ 386

7-5:10 Protective Orders During Depositions................................................................................ 386

7-5:11 Return of Depositions................................................................................ 386

7-5:12 Right of Defendants to Be Present and Represented at Depositions................................................................................ 387

7-5:13 Waiver of Presence and Failure to Appear at Depositions................................................................................ 387

7-5:14 Definition of Unavailable................................................................................ 387

7-5:15 Taking and Use in Court of Depositions by Agreement................................................................................ 388

7-5:16 Expenses of Depositions and Copies................................................................................ 388

7-6 POST CONVICTION DISCOVERY................................................................................ 388


Chapter 8: Disposition Without Trial................................................................................ 391

8-1 PROCEDURE FOR PLEA BARGAINING................................................................................ 391

8-1:1 Roles of Counsel................................................................................ 391

8-1:2 Discussions with the Defendant................................................................................ 392

8-1:3 Scope of Discussions and Outcomes................................................................................ 392

8-1:4 Plea Agreements................................................................................ 393

8-1:5 Victim’s Rights and Impact on Plea Bargaining................................................................................ 394

8-2 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PLEA BARGAINING................................................................................ 395

8-3 JUDICIAL PRETRIALS................................................................................ 395

8-4 PRETRIAL DIVERSIONARY PROGRAMS................................................................................ 395

8-4:1 “Miscellaneous Dispositions”................................................................................ 395

8-4:2 Accelerated Rehabilitation (“AR”)................................................................................ 396

8-4:3 Supervised Diversionary Program (“Psyc AR”)................................................................................ 398

8-4:4 Connecticut Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling Program (“CADAC”)................................................................................ 400

8-4:5 Pretrial Drug Education and Community Service Program (“DECSP”)................................................................................ 404

8-4:6 Alcohol Education Program (“AEP”)................................................................................ 406

8-4:7 Pretrial School Violence Education Program................................................................................ 409

8-4:8 Pretrial Family Violence Education Program (“Family Violence”)................................................................................ 410

8-4:9 Suspension of Prosecution for Certain Firearms Offenses................................................................................ 411

8-4:10 Minor Driving and Alcohol Offenses Committed by Youths................................................................................ 412

8-5 COMMUNITY COURT................................................................................ 413

8-6 REFERRALS................................................................................ 414

8-6:1 Family Relations................................................................................ 414

8-6:2 State Contractor Programs................................................................................ 414

8-6:3 Independent Counseling and/or Treatment................................................................................ 414

8-7 MOTION TO DISMISS................................................................................ 415

8-7:1 Timing and Form of Motions to Dismiss................................................................................ 415

8-7:2 Bases for Motions to Dismiss................................................................................ 415

8-7:3 Defects Not Requiring Dismissal................................................................................ 416

8-7:4 Judicial Entrance of a Dismissal................................................................................ 417

8-8 NOLLE PROSEQUI................................................................................ 417

8-8:1 Defendant’s Objection to Entrance of a Nolle................................................................................ 417

8-8:2 Effect of a Nolle................................................................................ 418

8-9 GUILTY PLEAS................................................................................ 419

8-9:1 Effect of a Guilty Plea................................................................................ 419

8-9:2 Notice to Judicial Authority of Agreement................................................................................ 419

8-9:3 Constitutional Underpinnings and Judicial Acceptance................................................................................ 420

8-9:3.1 Canvass of Defendant................................................................................ 420

8-9:3.2 Voluntariness of the Plea................................................................................ 422

8-9:3.3 Factual Basis................................................................................ 422

8-9:4 Advisements and Collateral Consequences of a Conviction................................................................................ 423

8-9:5 Sentencing After Judicial Acceptance................................................................................ 425

8-9:6 Judicial Rejection................................................................................ 425

8-9:7 Pleading to Other Offenses or Second Part of Information after Guilty Finding................................................................................ 425

8-10 CONDITIONAL PLEAS................................................................................ 426

8-11 PLEA OF NOLO CONTENDERE................................................................................ 427

8-12 PLEA UNDER THE ALFORD DOCTRINE................................................................................ 428

8-13 GARVIN PLEAS................................................................................ 428

8-14 WITHDRAWAL OF PLEA................................................................................ 429

8-14:1 Breach of Plea Agreement................................................................................ 429

8-14:2 Other Bases................................................................................ 430

8-14:2.1 Failure to Comply with the Practice Book................................................................................ 430

8-14:2.2 Lack of Voluntariness................................................................................ 431

8-14:2.3 Lack of a Factual Basis................................................................................ 431

8-14:2.4 Additional Bases................................................................................ 431

8-14:3 Effect of Withdrawal................................................................................ 432


Chapter 9: Competence of the Defendant................................................................................ 433

9-1 THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY BACKGROUND................................................................................ 433

9-2 WHEN DOES THE ISSUE ARISE?................................................................................ 434

9-3 THE TRIAL COURT’S INDEPENDENT DUTY AND INQUIRY................................................................................ 435

9-4 COMPETENCE COMPARED TO MENTAL ILLNESS AND LEGAL INSANITY................................................................................ 437

9-5 THE COMPETENCY EXAMINATION AND HEARING................................................................................ 438

9-6 POST-HEARING PROCEDURES................................................................................ 439

9-6:1 If the Defendant Is Likely to Regain Competency................................................................................ 439

9-6:2 If the Defendant Is Unlikely to Regain Competence................................................................................ 440

9-7 INVOLUNTARY MEDICATION................................................................................ 441


Chapter 10: Right to Counsel................................................................................ 443

10-1 ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE RIGHT TO COUNSEL................................................................................ 443

10-2 WHEN THE RIGHT ATTACHES................................................................................ 445

10-2:1 Generally................................................................................ 445

10-2:2 Initiation of Adversary Proceedings................................................................................ 445

10-2:3 Critical Stages................................................................................ 447

10-3 RIGHT TO COUNSEL DURING CUSTODIAL INTERROGATIONS................................................................................ 449

10-4 APPOINTMENT OF COUNSEL FOR INDIGENT DEFENDANTS................................................................................ 451

10-4:1 Constitutional and Procedural Requirements................................................................................ 451

10-4:2 Substitute Counsel................................................................................ 451

10-5 RIGHT TO EFFECTIVE ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL................................................................................ 453

10-5:1 The Standard................................................................................ 453

10-5:2 The Proper Forum for Raising the Claim................................................................................ 453

10-5:3 Ineffective Assistance at Trial................................................................................ 453

10-5:4 Ineffective Assistance in Relation to a Guilty Plea................................................................................ 455

10-5:5 Ineffective Assistance on Appeal................................................................................ 455

10-5:6 Decisions Reserved to the Defendant................................................................................ 456

10-6 INTERFERENCE WITH THE RIGHT TO ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL................................................................................ 456

10-6:1 Interference by the Government................................................................................ 457

10-6:2 Interference by the Court................................................................................ 458

10-7 THE RIGHT TO CONFLICT-FREE REPRESENTATION................................................................................ 459

10-7:1 General Principles................................................................................ 459

10-7:2 Joint Representation................................................................................ 461

10-7:3 The Attorney Witness................................................................................ 462

10-7:4 Waiver................................................................................ 463

10-8 RIGHT TO SELF-REPRESENTATION................................................................................ 464

10-8:1 Competency to Represent Oneself................................................................................ 464

10-8:2 Determining Mental Competency to Self-Represent................................................................................ 465

10-8:3 Invocation of the Right to Self-Representation and Waiver Procedures................................................................................ 465

10-8:4 Denial of Request for Self-Representation................................................................................ 467

10-8:5 Discovery Procedures for Self-Represented and Incarcerated Parties................................................................................ 468

10-8:5.1 Access to Legal Research................................................................................ 468

10-8:5.2 Right to Investigative Assistance................................................................................ 469

10-8:6 Trial Procedures and the Self-Represented Defendant................................................................................ 470

10-8:7 The Disruptive Defendant and Removal Procedure................................................................................ 470

10-8:7.1 The Disruptive Defendant................................................................................ 470

10-8:7.2 The Disruptive Self-Represented Defendant................................................................................ 472

10-8:8 Mid-Trial Withdrawal/Demand for Counsel................................................................................ 473

10-8:9 Hybrid Representation................................................................................ 474

10-8:10 Standby Counsel................................................................................ 474


Chapter 11: Jury Right, Selection and Misconduct................................................................................ 477

11-1 RIGHT TO A JURY TRIAL................................................................................ 477

11-1:1 Constitutional Right................................................................................ 477

11-1:1.1 Scope of the Federal Constitutional Right................................................................................ 478

11-1:1.2 Scope of the Connecticut Constitutional Right................................................................................ 479

11-1:2 Statutory Right................................................................................ 480

11-1:3 Waiving the Right................................................................................ 480

11-1:3.1 Personal Waiver—Canvass................................................................................ 481

11-1:3.2 Knowing, Intelligent, and Voluntary................................................................................ 482

11-2 JURY SELECTION: PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES................................................................................ 483

11-2:1 Number of Jurors................................................................................ 483

11-2:1.1 Regular Jurors................................................................................ 483

11-2:1.2 Alternate Jurors................................................................................ 484

11-2:1.3 Stipulation to a Fewer Number of Jurors................................................................................ 484

11-2:1.4 Juror Qualifications................................................................................ 485

11-2:2 Challenges to the Array................................................................................ 486

11-2:2.1 General Rule................................................................................ 486

11-2:2.2 Timing of the Challenge................................................................................ 487

11-2:2.3 Constitutional Basis................................................................................ 487

11-2:2.4 Due Process/Sixth Amendment................................................................................ 488

11-2:2.4a Prima Facie Showing................................................................................ 488

11-2:2.4b Prosecution Burden................................................................................ 489

11-2:2.4c Sixth Amendment Claim................................................................................ 489

11-2:2.4d The Nims Test................................................................................ 489

11-2:2.5 Equal Protection................................................................................ 489

11-2:2.5a Prima Facie Showing................................................................................ 489

11-2:2.5b Prosecution Burden................................................................................ 490

11-2:2.5c Standing................................................................................ 490

11-2:3 Introduction to the Panel................................................................................ 490

11-2:3.1 Juror Orientation................................................................................ 490

11-2:3.2 Preliminary Remarks by the Court................................................................................ 491

11-2:3.3 Preliminary Remarks by Counsel................................................................................ 491

11-2:3.4 Excusing Those with Reservations or Conflicts................................................................................ 491

11-2:4 Individual Voir Dire................................................................................ 492

11-2:4.1 Constitutional and Statutory Provisions................................................................................ 492

11-2:4.2 Presence of Judge Required................................................................................ 493

11-2:4.3 Scope of Questioning................................................................................ 493

11-2:4.4 Challenges for Cause................................................................................ 495

11-2:4.5 Alternative Panel Approach................................................................................ 496

11-2:5 Peremptory Challenges................................................................................ 497

11-2:5.1 Statutory and Practice Book Provisions................................................................................ 497

11-2:5.1a Offenses Punishable by Death or Life Imprisonment Without the Possibility of Release......................... 497

11-2:5.1b Offenses Punishable by Life Imprisonment................................................................................ 497

11-2:5.1c Offenses Punishable by More than One Year but Less than Life..................................................... 498

11-2:5.1d Offenses Otherwise Punishable................................................................................ 498

11-2:5.2 Permissible Reasons................................................................................ 498

11-2:6 Challenges Pursuant to Batson v. Kentucky................................................................................ 498

11-2:6.1 General Rule................................................................................ 498

11-2:6.2 Timing................................................................................ 499

11-2:6.3 Batson Hearing................................................................................ 499

11-2:6.3a Claim Raised................................................................................ 500

11-2:6.3b Opposing Response................................................................................ 500

11-2:6.3c Burden of Persuasion................................................................................ 500

11-2:6.4 Factors Supporting the Challenge................................................................................ 501

11-2:6.5 Factors Undermining the Challenge................................................................................ 501

11-2:6.6 Remedy for Batson Violation................................................................................ 502

11-2:7 Pretrial Publicity................................................................................ 502

11-2:7.1 Transfer of Prosecution................................................................................ 503

11-2:7.2 Ordinary v. Extreme Circumstances................................................................................ 504

11-2:7.3 Extensive Voir Dire................................................................................ 505

11-2:7.4 Cautionary instructions................................................................................ 506

11-3 JURY MISCONDUCT................................................................................ 506

11-3:1 General Rule................................................................................ 507

11-3:2 Types of Misconduct................................................................................ 507

11-3:2.1 Improper Communications or Conduct................................................................................ 508

11-3:2.2 Exposure to Extrinsic Evidence and Media................................................................................ 509

11-3:2.3 Juror Inattention or Intoxication................................................................................ 511

11-3:2.4 Miscellaneous Acts................................................................................ 512

11-3:3 Inquiry Required by the Court................................................................................ 514

11-3:3.1 Preliminary Inquiry Pursuant to State v. Brown................................................................................ 514

11-3:3.2 Factors Relevant to Form and Scope of Inquiry................................................................................ 518

11-3:3.3 Special Inquiry: Juror Racial Bias................................................................................ 519

11-3:4 Remedy................................................................................ 519

11-3:4.1 Curative Instructions................................................................................ 520

11-3:4.2 Alternate Juror Substitution................................................................................ 520

11-3:4.3 Mistrial................................................................................ 521

11-3:5 Trial Court’s Discretion/Appellate Court Review................................................................................ 521


Chapter 12: Fifth and Sixth Amendment Issues at Trial................................................................................ 523

12-1 THE RIGHT TO A PUBLIC TRIAL................................................................................ 523

12-1:1 History and Basis................................................................................ 523

12-1:2 Constitutional Provisions................................................................................ 524

12-1:3 Right of Access to the Trial and Closure of Trial................................................................................ 525

12-1:3.1 Practice Book Provisions................................................................................ 525

12-1:3.2 Scope of the Right................................................................................ 525

12-1:3.3 When is Closure Justified?................................................................................ 526

12-1:4 Right of Access to Documents and Restrictions Thereto................................................................................ 528

12-1:5 Appellate Review of a Closure Order................................................................................ 529

12-1:6 Media’s Right of Access and Prejudicial Publicity................................................................................ 530

12-2 THE RIGHT TO BE PRESENT................................................................................ 531

12-2:1 The Defendant’s Right to be Present................................................................................ 531

12-2:1.1 Constitutional Basis................................................................................ 531

12-2:1.2 Practice Book Provisions................................................................................ 531

12-2:1.3 Case Law on the Defendant’s Right to be Present................................................................................ 532

12-2:1.4 Sequestration and Comment on the Defendant’s Presence in the Courtroom................................................................................ 533

12-2:1.5 The Disruptive Defendant................................................................................ 534

12-2:1.6 Defendant’s Clothing and Shackling................................................................................ 535

12-2:2 The Victim’s Right to be Present................................................................................ 536

12-3 THE STATE’S CASE................................................................................ 536

12-3:1 Burden of Proof................................................................................ 536

12-3:2 Motion for Judgment of Acquittal................................................................................ 537

12-3:3 The Child Witness................................................................................ 539

12-4 THE RIGHT OF CONFRONTATION................................................................................ 539

12-4:1 Origin and Nature of Right to Confrontation................................................................................ 539

12-4:2 When the Right Attaches................................................................................ 540

12-4:3 Right to Physical Confrontation................................................................................ 541

12-4:3.1 Constitutional Requirements................................................................................ 541

12-4:3.2 Exceptions Generally................................................................................ 542

12-4:3.3 Testimony Permitted After a Jarzbek Hearing................................................................................ 542

12-4:4 Waiver of Right to Confrontation................................................................................ 544

12-4:4.1 Generally................................................................................ 544

12-4:4.2 Forfeiture by Wrongdoing................................................................................ 544

12-4:5 Right to Cross-Examine................................................................................ 545

12-4:5.1 Generally................................................................................ 545

12-4:5.2 Restrictions on the Scope of Cross-Examination................................................................................ 545

12-4:5.3 Cross-Examination Regarding Criminal Conduct of the Witness................................................................................ 548

12-4:5.4 Use of Privileged Information in Cross-Examination................................................................................ 548

12-4:5.5 Rape Shield and its Exceptions................................................................................ 549

12-4:5.5a Applicability of the Statute................................................................................ 550

12-4:5.5b Subdivision (1): Alternate Source of Semen or Injury................................................................................ 551

12-4:5.5c Subdivisions (2) and (3)................................................................................ 552

12-4:5.5d Subdivision (4): Evidence Otherwise So Relevant and Material to a Critical Issue............................................... 552

12-4:5.5e Subdivision (4): Alternate Source of Sexual Knowledge................................................................................ 553

12-4:6 Crawford v. Washington................................................................................ 554

12-4:6.1 What is a Testimonial Statement?................................................................................ 555

12-4:6.2 Availability for Cross-Examination................................................................................ 559

12-4:6.3 Prior Opportunity for Cross-Examination................................................................................ 561

12-4:6.4 Summary: Determining the Admissibility of Statements................................................................................ 561

12-5 THE PRIVILEGE AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION AT TRIAL................................................................................ 562

12-5:1 The Purpose and Scope of the Privilege................................................................................ 562

12-5:1.1 Definition and Origin of the Right................................................................................ 562

12-5:1.2 Relevant Constitutional and Statutory Provisions................................................................................ 564

12-5:1.3 Required Elements of the Testimonial Privilege................................................................................ 565

12-5:1.3a Compulsion................................................................................ 565

12-5:1.3b Testimony................................................................................ 567

12-5:1.3c Incrimination................................................................................ 568

12-5:1.4 Availability and Scope of Privilege................................................................................ 569

12-5:1.5 Raising the Privilege in Non-Criminal Proceedings................................................................................ 570

12-5:2 Procedure at Trial: How to Invoke the Privilege................................................................................ 571

12-5:2.1 Requirement of Witness to Invoke................................................................................ 571

12-5:2.2 Obligation of Trial Court Once Privilege is Invoked................................................................................ 572

12-5:2.3 Restrictions on Prosecutor When Witness Invokes the Privilege................................................................................ 575

12-5:2.4 When the Defendant Invokes the Privilege or Chooses to Testify................................................................................ 576

12-5:2.5 The Granting of Immunity................................................................................ 578

12-5:2.6 Conflict Between Witness’s Invocation of the Privilege and Defendant’s Sixth Amendment Right to Compulsory Process and to Confrontation................................................................................ 579

12-5:3 The Production of Documents Pursuant to Subpoena................................................................................ 580

12-5:3.1 Privilege Applies; the Act of Production Doctrine................................................................................ 580

12-5:3.2 Privilege Does Not Apply................................................................................ 581

12-6 THE RIGHT TO PRESENT A DEFENSE................................................................................ 582

12-6:1 Generally................................................................................ 582

12-6:2 Recognized Defenses................................................................................ 584

12-6:3 Affirmative Defenses................................................................................ 585

12-6:4 Right to Compulsory Process................................................................................ 586

12-7 PROSECUTORIAL IMPROPRIETY OR MISCONDUCT................................................................................ 587

12-7:1 General Jurisprudential Considerations................................................................................ 587

12-7:2 Categories of Prosecutorial Impropriety................................................................................ 589

12-7:2.1 Appeals to the Passions, Prejudices, or Sympathies of the Jurors................................................................................ 590

12-7:2.2 Expressions of Personal Opinion................................................................................ 591

12-7:2.3 Impugning Defense Counsel................................................................................ 593

12-7:2.4 Proscription Against Presentation of Matters or Facts Not in Evidence................................................................................ 593

12-7:2.5 Violation or Defiance of Trial Court Orders................................................................................ 594

12-7:2.6 Comment on Missing Witnesses................................................................................ 595

12-7:2.7 Improprieties that Stem From Questioning or Treatment of Witnesses; State v. Singh..................................................... 595

12-7:2.8 Improprieties that Distort the State’s Burden of Proof or Burden the Defendant’s Constitutional Rights............................ 597

12-7:3 Remedies at Trial: Objections, Curative Instructions, and Mistrial................................................................................ 598

12-7:4 Remedies on Appeal................................................................................ 599

12-7:4.1 State v. Williams................................................................................ 599

12-7:4.2 Supervisory Authority................................................................................ 600

12-8 JUDICIAL MISCONDUCT................................................................................ 602

12-8:1 Introduction................................................................................ 602

12-8:2 Bias................................................................................ 602

12-8:3 Participation in Plea-Bargaining Process................................................................................ 603

12-8:4 Improper Questioning of Witnesses................................................................................ 605


Chapter 13: Presenting the Case at Trial – Part I................................................................................ 607

13-1 OPENING STATEMENTS................................................................................ 607

13-1:1 Introduction of the Case to the Jury................................................................................ 607

13-1:2 Opening Statements Not Guaranteed by Law or Rule................................................................................ 608

13-1:3 Use of Exhibits in Opening Statement................................................................................ 609

13-2 WITNESSES................................................................................ 610

13-2:1 Competency................................................................................ 610

13-2:1.1 Child Witnesses................................................................................ 611

13-2:1.2 Child Victims of Sex Abuse................................................................................ 612

13-2:2 Procedure for Summoning Witnesses to Court................................................................................ 613

13-2:2.1 Police Witnesses................................................................................ 614

13-2:2.2 Federal Witnesses and the Touhy Doctrine................................................................................ 614

13-2:2.3 Incarcerated Witnesses................................................................................ 615

13-2:2.4 Out-of-State Witnesses................................................................................ 616

13-2:2.5 Reluctant Witnesses and Material Witness Warrants................................................................................ 616

13-2:3 Disclosure of Witness Statements................................................................................ 617

13-2:4 Sequestration................................................................................ 617

13-2:5 Immunity................................................................................ 619

13-2:6 Examination of Witnesses by the Court................................................................................ 621

13-3 PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE................................................................................ 622

13-3:1 Order of Presentation at Trial................................................................................ 622

13-3:2 Motions to Re-Open the Case-in Chief................................................................................ 623

13-3:3 Direct Examination................................................................................ 623

13-3:4 Anticipating Impeachment................................................................................ 624

13-3:5 Cross-Examination................................................................................ 625

13-3:5.1 Constitutional Right of Confrontation................................................................................ 625

13-3:5.2 Scope................................................................................ 626

13-3:5.3 Good Faith Basis Required................................................................................ 626

13-3:5.4 Hypothetical Questions Permitted................................................................................ 626

13-3:5.5 Cross-examining Co-Defendant................................................................................ 627

13-3:6 Re-Direct Examination................................................................................ 627

13-3:6.1 Opening the Door................................................................................ 627

13-3:6.2 Rule of Completeness................................................................................ 628

13-3:7 Procedure for Admission of Exhibits................................................................................ 629

13-3:8 Authentication and Chain of Custody................................................................................ 629

13-3:8.1 Audio Recordings and 911 Tapes................................................................................ 630

13-3:8.2 Real Evidence and Contraband................................................................................ 631

13-3:8.3 Electronic Communications and Digital Evidence................................................................................ 632

13-3:9 Objecting to the Admission of Evidence................................................................................ 633

13-3:10 Making the Offer of Proof................................................................................ 633

13-3:11 Motions in Limine................................................................................ 634

13-3:12 State Law Claims of Privilege................................................................................ 635

13-3:12.1 Spousal Testimony and Domestic Violence Prosecutions................................................................................ 636

13-3:12.2 Parent-Child Testimony................................................................................ 637

13-3:12.3 Attorney-Client Communications................................................................................ 638

13-3:12.3a Joint Defense Meetings and Communications................................................................................ 639

13-3:12.3b Inquiry Into Plea Negotiations................................................................................ 640

13-3:12.3c Meetings With Counsel................................................................................ 640

13-3:12.3d No Wiretapping of Privileged Conversations................................................................................ 640

13-3:12.4 Medical Treatment, Mental Health, and Sexual Assault Records................................................................................ 640

13-3:12.4a Physician-Patient Communications................................................................................ 640

13-3:12.4b Medical Records................................................................................ 641

13-3:12.4c Psychiatrist-Patient Privilege................................................................................ 643

13-3:12.4d Psychologist-Patient Privilege................................................................................ 644

13-3:12.4e Sexual Assault/Rape Crisis Centers................................................................................ 645

13-3:12.5 Substance Abuse Records................................................................................ 645

13-3:12.6 Information Provided by Defendant to Bail Commissioner................................................................................ 646

13-4 COMMON RELEVANCY OBJECTIONS AND ISSUES OF ADMISSIBILITY................................................................................ 646

13-4:1 General Principles................................................................................ 646

13-4:2 Defendant’s Prior Misconduct................................................................................ 647

13-4:2.1 Use of Defendant’s Prior Convictions During Cross-Examination of the Defendant................................................................................ 648

13-4:2.2 Offered as Proof of Violent Character of Defendant................................................................................ 652

13-4:2.3 Offered as Proof of Defendant’s Knowledge, Intent, Motive, Planning, Opportunity, Common Plan or Scheme, or Identity........................... 653

13-4:2.4 Defendant’s Prior Misconduct in Sexual Assault Cases (State v. DeJesus)....................................................... 656

13-4:3 Witnesses’ Prior Misconduct................................................................................ 658

13-4:3.1 Prior Convictions................................................................................ 658

13-4:3.2 Uncharged Misconduct................................................................................ 659

13-4:3.3 Bias, Motive, or Interest of a Witness................................................................................ 660

13-4:3.3a Pending Charges................................................................................ 660

13-4:3.3b Plea and Cooperation Agreements................................................................................ 661

13-4:3.4 Victim’s Prior Sexual Conduct and Rape Shield Statute................................................................................ 661

13-4:4 Photographs and Maps................................................................................ 662

13-4:5 Consciousness of Guilt Evidence................................................................................ 664

13-4:5.1 Flight................................................................................ 664

13-4:5.2 Threats................................................................................ 665

13-4:5.3 Other Evasive Conduct................................................................................ 665

13-4:6 Hearsay................................................................................ 666

13-4:6.1 Generally................................................................................ 666

13-4:6.2 Nonverbal Conduct May Be Hearsay................................................................................ 666

13-4:6.3 Non-Hearsay................................................................................ 667

13-4:6.3a Effect on Hearer................................................................................ 667

13-4:6.3b Verbal Acts................................................................................ 667

13-4:7 Admissions................................................................................ 668

13-4:7.1 Defendant’s Oral and Written Statements................................................................................ 668

13-4:7.2 Prior Guilty Pleas................................................................................ 669

13-4:7.3 Admission into Diversionary Programs................................................................................ 669

13-4:8 Coconspirator Statements................................................................................ 670

13-4:9 Prior Inconsistent Statements................................................................................ 671

13-4:9.1 Impeachment Using a Prior Inconsistent Statement................................................................................ 672

13-4:9.2 Substantive Use and Whelan................................................................................ 674

13-4:9.2a General Requirements................................................................................ 674

13-4:9.2b Gatekeeper Function of Court................................................................................ 676

13-4:10 Prior Consistent Statements................................................................................ 676

13-4:11 Pretrial identifications................................................................................ 677

13-4:12 Excited Utterances and 911 Calls................................................................................ 678

13-4:13 Declarations Against Penal Interest................................................................................ 679

13-4:14 Former Testimony................................................................................ 680

13-4:15 Statements to Medical Personnel................................................................................ 680

13-4:16 Business Records and Police Reports................................................................................ 682

13-4:17 Computer Records................................................................................ 683

13-4:18 Tender Years Exception................................................................................ 684

13-4:19 Constancy of Accusation in Sexual Assault Cases................................................................................ 685

13-5 EXPERT TESTIMONY................................................................................ 686

13-5:1 Standard for Admissibility; Expert v. Lay Opinion................................................................................ 687

13-5:2 Scientific Evidence and State v. Porter................................................................................ 687

13-5:3 Admissibility of DNA Evidence................................................................................ 688

13-5:4 Medical Examiner................................................................................ 689

13-5:5 DUI Cases................................................................................ 690

13-5:5.1 Results of Chemical Analysis to Determine Blood/Alcohol Content....................................... 690

13-5:5.2 Field Sobriety Tests................................................................................ 692

13-5:6 Narcotics Trafficking................................................................................ 693

13-5:7 Eyewitness Identification Experts................................................................................ 693

13-5:8 Child Sexual Abuse Experts................................................................................ 695

13-5:8.1 Generally Allowed................................................................................ 695

13-5:8.2 Limitations................................................................................ 695

13-5:9 False Confessions................................................................................ 695

13-5:10 Jailhouse Informants................................................................................ 698

13-5:11 Syndrome Behavior................................................................................ 698

13-5:12 Cell Phone Analysis................................................................................ 698


Chapter 14: Presenting the Case at Trial – Part II................................................................................ 699

14-1 JURY INSTRUCTIONS................................................................................ 699

14-1:1 General Principles................................................................................ 699

14-1:2 Judicial Branch Jury Instructions................................................................................ 701

14-1:3 Standard of Review on Appeal................................................................................ 702

14-1:4 State v. Kitchens and the “Implicit Waiver” Rule................................................................................ 703

14-1:5 Request to Charge................................................................................ 704

14-1:6 Charge Conference................................................................................ 706

14-1:7 Clarification of the Charge................................................................................ 707

14-1:8 Preserving Issues for Appeal and Waiver................................................................................ 708

14-1:9 Specific Issues for the Jury Charge................................................................................ 709

14-1:9.1 Lesser Included Offenses and State v. Whistnant................................................................................ 709

14-1:9.1a State’s Right to Lesser Included Offense Instruction................................................................................ 712

14-1:9.1b Acquittal First Instruction................................................................................ 713

14-1:9.2 Requirement of No Adverse Inference Instruction................................................................................ 713

14-1:9.3 Request to Charge on Defenses/ Theory of Defense................................................................................ 715

14-1:9.3a Common Law Defenses................................................................................ 717

14-1:9.3b Inconsistent Defenses................................................................................ 717

14-1:9.4 Third Party Culpability Instruction................................................................................ 717

14-1:9.5 Missing Evidence/Failure to Preserve Instruction................................................................................ 719

14-1:9.5a Missing Evidence................................................................................ 719

14-1:9.5b Failure to Preserve Evidence/Due Process................................................................................ 719

14-1:9.6 The Presumption of Innocence................................................................................ 722

14-1:9.6a Protects “Innocent and Not the Guilty” Improper................................................................................ 722

14-1:9.6b State’s Interest in Not Convicting Innocent Persons................................................................................ 723

14-1:9.7 Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt................................................................................ 723

14-1:9.7a Use of Analogies and Metaphors Improper................................................................................ 725

14-1:9.7b “Ingenuity of Counsel” Instruction Improper................................................................................ 725

14-1:9.7c “Two-inference” Instruction Improper................................................................................ 726

14-1:9.7d Moral Certainty................................................................................ 726

14-1:9.7e Cumulative Effect/ Reasonable Doubt................................................................................ 727

14-1:9.8 Inadequate Investigation and Burden of Proof................................................................................ 727

14-1:9.9 Witness Credibility................................................................................ 728

14-1:9.9a Accomplice Instruction................................................................................ 728

14-1:9.9b Complaining Witness................................................................................ 730

14-1:9.9c Jailhouse Informant Testimony................................................................................ 731

14-1:9.9d Defendant’s Confession................................................................................ 732

14-1:9.10 Defendant’s Testimony and Interest in Case................................................................................ 733

14-1:9.11 Consciousness of Guilt Charge................................................................................ 734

14-1:9.11a As to the Defendant................................................................................ 734

14-1:9.11b As to Witnesses or Victim................................................................................ 735

14-1:9.12 Consciousness of Innocence Charge................................................................................ 735

14-1:9.13 Eyewitness Identification Instruction................................................................................ 736

14-1:9.13a Ledbetter Instruction................................................................................ 739

14-1:9.13b “Fleeting Glance” Instruction................................................................................ 740

14-1:9.14 Jury Deadlock and “Chip Smith” Charge................................................................................ 740

14-2 CLOSING ARGUMENT................................................................................ 742

14-2:1 Generally................................................................................ 742

14-2:2 Time Limits................................................................................ 744

14-2:3 Waiver of Closing Argument by Defense Counsel................................................................................ 745

14-2:4 Prior Notice and Comment on Absence of Witness................................................................................ 745

14-2:5 Use of Exhibits and Other Visual Aids................................................................................ 747

14-2:6 Use of Photographs of Deceased Victim Prior to Offense................................................................................ 747

14-2:7 Use of Jury Instructions................................................................................ 748

14-2:8 Objections................................................................................ 748

14-3 VERDICT/JUDGMENT................................................................................ 748

14-3:1 Verdict forms................................................................................ 748

14-3:2 Special Verdict Forms and Interrogatories................................................................................ 749

14-3:3 Specific Unanimity Instructions................................................................................ 751

14-3:4 Polling the Jury................................................................................ 751

14-3:5 Inconsistent Verdicts................................................................................ 752

14-3:6 Mistrial Based on Deadlocked Jury................................................................................ 753


Chapter 15: Sentencing................................................................................ 755

15-1 PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION AND REPORT................................................................................ 755

15-1:1 When Required................................................................................ 756

15-1:2 Waiver................................................................................ 757

15-1:3 Contents................................................................................ 757

15-1:4 Distribution of Report................................................................................ 758

15-1:5 Challenges to Report................................................................................ 760

15-2 THE SENTENCING HEARING................................................................................ 762

15-2:1 Procedures to Be Followed................................................................................ 762

15-2:2 Parties’ Right to Be Heard................................................................................ 762

15-2:3 Evidence to Be Considered in Fixing the Penalty................................................................................ 763

15-2:4 Right of Allocution................................................................................ 763

15-2:5 Function of Counsel................................................................................ 764

15-2:6 Competence of Defendant................................................................................ 765

15-2:7 Pronouncement of the Sentence................................................................................ 765

15-2:8 Death Penalty................................................................................ 766

15-2:8.1 Federal................................................................................ 766

15-2:8.2 Connecticut................................................................................ 768

15-3 DETERMINING THE SENTENCE................................................................................ 769

15-3:1 Role of the Judge................................................................................ 769

15-3:2 Factors and Evidence a Court May Consider................................................................................ 769

15-3:3 Limits on Discretion................................................................................ 771

15-4 SPECIFIC SENTENCING OPTIONS................................................................................ 772

15-4:1 General Statutes § 53a-28.................................................................................... 772

15-4:2 Multiple Sentences (Concurrent v. Consecutive)................................................................................ 772

15-4:3 Multiple Sentences and Double Jeopardy................................................................................ 774

15-4:4 Split Sentences: Conditional Discharge and Probation................................................................................ 775

15-4:5 Fines................................................................................ 776

15-4:6 Parole................................................................................ 778

15-4:7 Special Parole................................................................................ 780

15-4:8 Sentencing to Niantic................................................................................ 781

15-4:9 Alternate Incarceration Program................................................................................ 782

15-4:10 Sex Offender Registry................................................................................ 783

15-4:11 Sentencing the Mentally Ill Defendant................................................................................ 784

15-4:12 Persistent Offender Statutes................................................................................ 786

15-5 CHANGE OF SENTENCE................................................................................ 787

15-5:1 Sentence Modification Generally................................................................................ 787

15-5:2 Motion to Correct Illegal Sentence................................................................................ 787

15-5:3 Reduction of Sentence................................................................................ 789

15-5:4 Sentence Review................................................................................ 790

15-5:4.1 Sentence Review Division................................................................................ 790

15-5:4.2 Procedure................................................................................ 791

15-5:4.3 Evidence to Be Considered................................................................................ 793

15-5:5 Appeal of Sentence................................................................................ 794

15-5:5.1 Cruel and Unusual Punishment................................................................................ 794

15-5:5.2 Equal Protection................................................................................ 796

15-6 PROBATION................................................................................ 797

15-6:1 Nature and Use of Probation................................................................................ 797

15-6:2 Conditions of Probation................................................................................ 799

15-6:3 Out of State Parolee Supervision................................................................................ 801

15-6:4 Revocation of Probation................................................................................ 801

15-6:4.1 Due Process and Constitutional Background................................................................................ 801

15-6:4.2 Initiation of the Charges................................................................................ 802

15-6:4.3 Timing of the Hearing................................................................................ 803

15-6:4.4 Nature of and Evidentiary Rules at the Adjudicatory Stage................................................................................ 804

15-6:4.5 Nature of the Dispositional Stage................................................................................ 806

15-6:4.6 Right of Allocution................................................................................ 807

15-6:4.7 Court’s Decisional Options................................................................................ 807


Chapter 16: Postconviction Motions and Petitions................................................................................ 809

16-1 MOTION FOR JUDGMENT OF ACQUITTAL................................................................................ 809

16-2 MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL................................................................................ 811

16-2:1 Grounds................................................................................ 811

16-2:2 Instances in Which Relief Was Granted................................................................................ 811

16-3 PRACTICE BOOK § 42-55: “TIME FOR ­FILING MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL BASED ON NEWLY DISCOVERED EVIDENCE”.......................... 812

16-4 PETITIONS FOR NEW TRIAL................................................................................ 812

16-4:1 Generally................................................................................ 812

16-4:2 Grounds................................................................................ 813

16-4:3 Petitions Based on Newly Discovered Evidence................................................................................ 814

16-4:4 Distinctions Between Petitions for New Trial and Habeas Corpus Petitions................................. 816

16-5 MOTIONS IN ARREST OF JUDGMENT................................................................................ 819

16-6 MOTIONS CONCERNING BOND................................................................................ 820

16-7 PETITION FOR DESTRUCTION OF ­RECORDS OF DECRIMINALIZED OFFENSE................................................................................ 820

16-8 OTHER POSTCONVICTION PETITIONS AND MOTIONS................................................................................ 822


Table of Cases................................................................................ 823

Index............................................................................................... 909