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New Jersey Trial Evidence and Procedure

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Andrew J. Kyreakakis


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New Jersey Trial Evidence and Procedure provides a practical and comprehensive presentation of trial evidence and procedure. This book encompasses the rules and law governing the trial of cases which are found in the evidence rules, court rules, court decisions, and Model Civil Jury Charges. This volume also provides important practice points and insights as to how this body of evidence law plays out in a courtroom and what strategies provide maximum success. 


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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New Jersey Law Journal
  • Product Type: Books
  • Page Count: 762
  • ISBN: 978-1-62881-614-3
  • Pub#/SKU#: JEVID20
  • Pub Date: 06/28/2019
  • Volume(s): 1
  • Frequency: Annually

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Andrew J. Kyreakakis is a member of the New Jersey and New York bars and is a partner in the litigation department of Weiner Lesniak LLP law firm. Previous to this he has been a certified civil trial attorney in New Jersey for more than 15 years.  Kyreakakis is the attorney of record on numerous state and federal decisions, including opinions on trial evidence and procedure, specifically expert testimony, motion for directed verdict, evidence on settlement negotiations, impeachment, prejudicial evidence, remittitur, motion for a new trial, and parol evidence. 


Chapter 1: Trial Calendar and Pretrial Information Exchange
1-1 TRIAL CALENDAR
1-1:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:36-3. Trial Calendar
1-1:2 Discussion
1-2 FAILURE TO APPEAR AT TRIAL
1-3 ATTORNEY CONFERENCES; EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
1-3:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:25-7. Attorney Conferences; Exchange of Information
1-3:2 Discussion
1-3:3 Misuse of Rule 4:25-7
1-3:4 Practice Point

Chapter 2: Selecting a Jury
2-1 DEMAND FOR JURY TRIAL
2-1:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:35-1. Demand for Jury Trial
2-1:2 Discussion
2-1:3 Amendments to Pleadings
2-2 NUMBER OF JURORS
2-2:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-2. Number of Jurors
2-3 ALTERNATE JURORS
2-4 NUMBER OF JURORS DECIDING VERDICT
2-5 PETIT JUROR LIST
2-5:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-5. Availability of Petit Jury List
2-5:2 Discussion
2-6 VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS UNDER DIRECTIVE #4-07
2-6:1 Background Questions
2-6:2 Biographical Questions
2-6:3 Omnibus Qualification Questions
2-6:4 Open-Ended Questions
2-6:5 Case Categories
2-6:6 Criminal Cases
2-7 ADDITIONAL VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS
2-7:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-3. Conference With Court on Juror Questions
2-7:2 Practice Point
2-8 WHO CONDUCTS VOIR DIRE
2-8:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-3. Examination of Jurors; Challenges
2-8:2 Discussion
2-9 PEREMPTORY CHALLENGES
2-9:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-3. Examination of Jurors; Challenges
2-9:2 Discussion
2-9:3 Practice Point
2-10 REMOVAL FOR CAUSE
2-11 FORCED USE OF PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE
2-12 THE INATTENTIVE JUROR
2-13 ORDER OF EXERCISING OF PEREMPTORY CHALLENGES
2-13:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-3(e). Order of Exercising of Peremptory Challenges
2-14 JUDGE VERSUS JURY DECISION-MAKING
2-15 CHANGE OF VENUE WHERE PRETRIAL PUBLICITY PREJUDICES JURY
2-15:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:3-3. Change of Venue in the Superior Court
2-15:2 Discussion
2-15:3 Practice Point

Chapter 3: Jury Note Taking and Jury Questions
3-1 JUROR NOTE TAKING
3-1:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-8. Materials to be Submitted to the Jury; Note-Taking
3-1:2 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.15. Note-Taking by Jurors
3-1:3 Practice Point
3-2 JUROR QUESTIONS
3-2:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-8. Materials to be Submitted to the Jury; Note-Taking; Juror Questions
3-2:2 Discussion
3-2:3 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.23. Preliminary Instructions Regarding Juror’s Questions
3-2:4 Practice Point

Chapter 4: Opening Statement
4-1 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 1:7-1. OPENING STATEMENT
4-1:1 Order of Opening
4-1:2 Purpose and Scope of Opening
4-1:3 Examples of Improper Opening Statements
4-1:4 Curative Instructions
4-1:5 Practice Point

Chapter 5: Preliminary Hearing
5-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 104(A). QUESTIONS OF ADMISSIBILITY GENERALLY
5-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 104 Hearing
5-1:2 Fulfilling Conditions of Evidence Rules
5-1:3 Burden
5-1:4 Where Preliminary Hearing Is Held
5-1:5 Rules of Evidence Do Not Apply
5-1:6 Provisional Admissibility
5-1:7 Practice Point

Chapter 6: Conditional Evidence
6-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 104(B). RELEVANCE CONDITIONED ON FACT
6-1:1 Discussion
6-1:2 Practice Point

Chapter 7: Judicial Notice
7-1 RULES REGARDING JUDICIAL NOTICE
7-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 201. Judicial Notice of Law and Adjudicative Facts
7-1:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 202. Judicial Notice in Proceedings Subsequent to Trial
7-2 OVERVIEW
7-3 PURPOSE
7-4 PROCEDURE FOR INVOKING JUDICIAL NOTICE
7-5 WHEN JUDICIAL NOTICE IS MANDATORY OR DISCRETIONARY
7-6 EFFECT OF JUDICIAL NOTICE
7-7 EXAMPLES OF JUDICIALLY NOTICED FACTS
7-8 TIME TO REQUEST JUDICIAL NOTICE
7-9 WHERE JUDICIAL NOTICE HAS BEEN REJECTED
7-10 SUBSEQUENT PROCEEDINGS AND APPEALS
7-11 PRACTICE POINT

Chapter 8: Presumptions
8-1 INTRODUCTION
8-2 RULES
8-2:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 301. Effect of Presumption
8-2:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 302. Choice of Law
8-2:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 303. Presumptions Against the Accused in Criminal Cases
8-3 EFFECTS OF PRESUMPTIONS
8-4 THE BURDEN DOES NOT SHIFT
8-5 WHERE CONTRARY EVIDENCE IS INTRODUCED THE FACT MUST BE DECIDED BY THE FACT FINDER
8-6 OFFICIAL COMMENT TO NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 301
8-7 INFERENCE VERSUS PRESUMPTION
8-7:1 Res Ipsa Loquitur
8-7:2 Model Civil Jury Charge 5.10D. Res Ipsa Loquitur
8-8 PROOFS NECESSARY TO PROVE OR DISPROVE A PRESUMPTION
8-9 STATUTORY PRESUMPTIONS
8-10 PRESUMPTIONS CREATED BY CASE LAW
8-11 PRESUMPTIONS IN CRIMINAL CASES
8-12 PRACTICE POINT
8-13 SHIFTING OF BURDEN

Chapter 9: Relevance, Exclusionary Rules, Limiting Instructions, and Stipulations
9-1 RELEVANCE RULES
9-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 401. Definition of “Relevant Evidence”
9-1:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 402. Relevant Evidence Generally Admissible
9-2 DISCUSSION
9-3 EXCLUSIONARY RULES
9-3:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 403. Exclusion of Relevant Evidence on Grounds of Prejudice, Confusion, or Waste of Time
9-3:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 407. Subsequent Remedial Measures
9-3:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 408. Settlement Offers and Negotiations
9-3:4 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 411. Liability Insurance
9-3:5 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 409. Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses
9-3:6 Practice Point
9-3:7 Other Exclusionary Rules
9-4 LIMITING INSTRUCTIONS
9-4:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 105. Limited Admissibility
9-4:2 When to Ask for an Instruction on Limited Admissibility
9-5 STIPULATIONS
9-5:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 101(a)(4). Undisputed Facts
9-5:2 Discussion

Chapter 10: Character Evidence
10-1 INTRODUCTION
10-2 RULES
10-2:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 404. Character Evidence Not Admissible to Prove Conduct; Exceptions; Other Crimes Evidence
10-2:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 405. Methods of Proving Character
10-2:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 406. Habit; Routine Practice
10-2:4 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 608. Evidence of Character for Truthfulness or Untruthfulness and Evidence of Prior False Accusation
10-3 CHARACTER TRAIT AT ISSUE
10-4 ATTACK ON CREDIBILITY
10-5 SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF CONDUCT
10-5:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 405(b). Specific Instances of Conduct
10-5:2 Federal Rule of Evidence 608. Evidence of Character and Conduct of Witness
10-6 METHODS TO PROVE CHARACTER
10-6:1 Opinion Witness
10-6:2 Reputation Evidence
10-7 EVIDENCE OF HABIT
10-8 PRIOR WRONGS
10-8:1 The Cofield Four-Part Analysis
10-8:2 Other Wrongs Deemed Admissible
10-8:3 Other Wrongs Deemed Inadmissible
10-8:4 Limited Instruction Given to Jury
10-9 PRIOR ACCIDENT EVIDENCE
10-10 CONVICTION OF A CRIME
10-10:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
10-10:2 Federal Rule of Evidence 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime
10-10:3 Practice Point
10-11 SUMMARY

Chapter 11: Privileges
11-1 INTRODUCTION
11-2 PRIVILEGES NARROWLY CONSTRUED
11-3 ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
11-3:1 New Jersey Statute 2A:84A-20. Lawyer-Client Privilege
11-3:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 504. Lawyer-Client Privilege
11-3:3 Litigation Control Group
11-3:4 Attorney-Client Privilege Not Absolute
11-4 WORK PRODUCT PRIVILEGE
11-4:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:10-2(c). Scope of Discovery; Treating Physician; Trial Preparation; Materials.
11-4:2 New Jersey Court Rule 4:10-2(d)(1). Scope of Discovery; Treating Physician; Trial Preparation; Experts.
11-4:3 Discussion
11-4:4 Practice Point
11-5 COMMON INTEREST RULE
11-6 PHYSICIAN-PATIENT PRIVILEGE
11-6:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 506. Patient and Physician Privilege
11-6:2 Discussion
11-6:3 Interviewing a Treating Physician
11-6:4 Calling a Treating Physician as an Expert
11-7 PSYCHOLOGIST PRIVILEGE
11-7:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 505. Psychologist Privilege
11-7:2 Discussion
11-8 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICE PROVIDER PRIVILEGE
11-8:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 534. Mental Health Service Provider - Patient Privilege
11-8:2 Discussion
11-9 MARITAL PRIVILEGE
11-9:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 509. Marital Privilege—Confidential Communications
11-9:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 501. Privilege of Accused
11-9:3 Discussion
11-9:4 Proposed Amendment to New Jersey Rule ofEvidence 509
11-10 SELF-CRITICAL ANALYSIS PRIVILEGE
11-10:1 The Patient Safety Act
11-11 LITIGATION PRIVILEGE
11-12 JUDICIAL IMMUNITY
11-13 FAIR COMMENT PRIVILEGE
11-14 DELIBERATIVE PROCESS PRIVILEGE
11-15 EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE
11-16 CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION RECORDS
11-17 COMMON-LAW RIGHT OF ACCESS
11-18 VAUGHN INDEX
11-19 SELF-INCRIMINATION
11-19:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 503. Self-Incrimination
11-19:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 501. Privilege of Accused
11-19:3 Discussion
11-20 OTHER PRIVILEGES
11-21 PIERCING A PRIVILEGE
11-22 WAIVER OF PRIVILEGE
11-22:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 530. Waiver of Privilege by Contract or Previous Disclosure; Limitations
11-22:2 Discussion
11-22:3 Inadvertent Disclosure of Privileged Information
11-22:4 Practice Point

Chapter 12: Lack of Personal Knowledge
12-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 602. LACK OF PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE
12-2 DISCUSSION

Chapter 13: Order of Interrogation and Presentation of Proofs
13-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 611. MODE AND ORDER OF INTERROGATION AND PRESENTATION
13-2 CONTROL BY COURT
13-2:1 Cumulative Evidence
13-3 SCOPE OF CROSS-EXAMINATION
13-3:1 Restrictions on Cross-Examination
13-4 PRACTICE POINT
13-5 ASKING ADVERSARY LEADING QUESTIONS
13-6 OBLIGATION TO DISCLOSE CHANGE IN TESTIMONY AT TRIAL
13-7 REOPENING PROOFS
13-8 PRACTICE POINT
13-9 CONTINUANCE OF A TRIAL
13-9:1 The Surprise Witness
13-9:2 Deposition at Mid-Trial

Chapter 14: Refreshing Recollection and Past Recollection Recorded
14-1 REFRESHING RECOLLECTION
14-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 612. Writing Used to Refresh Memory
14-1:2 Items That Can Be Used to Refresh Recollection
14-1:3 Procedure to Refresh Recollection
14-1:4 Requirements to Refresh Recollection
14-1:5 Objections to Refreshing Recollection
14-1:6 Impeachment by Adversary
14-1:7 Memory Refreshed Before Trial
14-2 PAST RECOLLECTION RECORDED
14-2:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(5). Recorded Recollection
14-2:2 Requirements for Admission
14-2:3 Practice Point

Chapter 15: Questioning and Calling of Witnesses by the Trial Judge
15-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 614. CALLING AND INTERROGATION OF WITNESSES BY JUDGE
15-2 INTRODUCTION
15-3 JUDGE’S QUESTIONS
15-4 JUDGE CALLING OWN WITNESSES
15-5 CAUTION: JUDGE MUST NOT OVERSTEP JUDICIAL ROLE
15-6 PRACTICE POINT
15-7 COURT MUST NOT IMPEACH THE INTEGRITY OF COUNSEL IN THE PRESENCE OF THE JURY

Chapter 16: Sequestration of Witnesses
16-1 SEQUESTRATION RULES
16-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 615. Sequestration of Witnesses
16-1:2 Federal Rule of Evidence 615. Excluding Witnesses
16-2 POLICY
16-3 STANDARD FOR GRANTING
16-4 EXCEPTIONS TO SEQUESTRATION
16-4:1 Party
16-4:2 Witness
16-4:3 Designated Representative
16-4:4 Analogous Federal Rule of Evidence
16-5 SEQUESTRATION OF WITNESSES AT DEPOSITIONS
16-5:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:10-3. Protective Orders
16-5:2 Discussion
16-5:3 Practice Point

Chapter 17: Attacking Credibility
17-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 607. CREDIBILITY AND NEUTRALIZATION
17-2 ATTACKING A WITNESS’ CREDIBILITY
17-3 PRESENTING EVIDENCE OF A PRIOR INJURY OR CONDITION
17-4 NECESSITY OF DISCLOSURE OF EXTRINSIC EVIDENCE USED TO IMPEACH CREDIBILITY
17-4:1 Practice Point
17-5 IMPEACHING YOUR OWN WITNESS
17-6 PRACTICE POINT
17-7 IMPEACHING ONE’S WITNESS UNDER THE FEDERAL RULES OF EVIDENCE
17-7:1 Federal Rule of Evidence 607. Who May Impeach
17-7:2 Discussion
17-8 DISCUSSIONS BETWEEN A PARTY AND COUNSEL BEFORE COMPLETION OF THE PARTY’S TRIAL TESTIMONY
17-8:1 Practice Point
17-9 MALINGERING OR SYMPTOM MAGNIFICATION EVIDENCE NO LONGER ADMISSIBLE TO ATTACK CREDIBILITY

Chapter 18: Prior Inconsistent Statement Used to Impeach the Witness
18-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 613. PRIOR STATEMENTS OF WITNESSES
18-2 GENERAL
18-3 NEUTRALIZATION
18-4 PRIOR WRITTEN STATEMENT
18-5 PRIOR ORAL STATEMENT
18-6 PRIOR DEPOSITION TESTIMONY
18-7 PRACTICE POINT
18-8 OPPORTUNITY TO EXPLAIN THE INCONSISTENCY
18-9 RELIABILITY
18-10 EXCLUSION OF SURPRISE INSCONSISTENT STATEMENT
18-11 COLLATERAL IMPEACHMENT EVIDENCE

Chapter 19: Prior Inconsistent Statements Admitted for Their Truth
19-1 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 803. HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS NOT DEPENDENT ON DECLARANT’S UNAVAILABILITY PRIOR STATEMENT OF WITNESS
19-2 DISCUSSION
19-3 NOT SUBSTANTIVE EVIDENCE IF YOU CALL WITNESS UNLESS REQUIREMENTS ARE FULFILLED
19-4 FEDERAL RULES OF EVIDENCE
19-4:1 Federal Rule of Evidence 801(d). Statements That Are Not Hearsay.
19-4:2 Discussion

Chapter 20: Prior Consistent Statements and Vouching
20-1 RULES
20-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 607. Credibility and Neutralization
20-1:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(a). Hearsay Exceptions Not Dependent on Declarant’s Unavailability
20-2 PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENT OF WITNESS TO BOLSTER TESTIMONY INADMISSIBLE
20-3 PRIOR CONSISTENT STATEMENT TO BOLSTER WITNESS AFTER HIS CREDIBILITY HAS BEEN ATTACKED IS ADMISSIBLE
20-4 USING OTHER WITNESSES TO BOLSTER TESTIMONY IS PROHIBITED
20-5 PRACTICE POINT

Chapter 21: Expert Testimony
21-1 INTRODUCTION
21-2 WHEN EXPERT TESTIMONY IS REQUIRED AND WHENTHE COMMON KNOWLEDGE DOCTRINE APPLIES
21-2:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 702. Testimony by Experts
21-2:2 The Common Knowledge Doctrine
21-2:3 Beyond the Ken of Jurors
21-2:4 Practice Point
21-3 WHAT QUALIFICATIONS ARE REQUIRED FOR AN EXPERT
21-3:1 New Jersey Medical Care Access and Responsibility and Patients First Act
21-3:2 Non-Medical Professionals
21-4 IMPEACHING AN EXPERT WITNESS
21-4:1 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.13C. Optional Charge Concerning Fee Paid to Expert
21-5 THE NET OPINION RULE
21-5:1 Motion to Dismiss Expert Testimony as a Net Opinion
21-5:2 Striking of Expert Reports Related to Preexisting Injuries
21-5:3 Practice Point: Countering the Net Opinion Motion
21-6 HYPOTHETICAL QUESTIONS
21-6:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion; HypothesesNot Necessary
21-6:2 Discussion
21-6:3 Practice Point
21-7 RELIABILITY OF EXPERT OPINION
21-7:1 General Acceptance Test
21-7:2 General Acceptance Test Is Rejected in Toxic Tort Cases
21-7:3 The Kemp Test: Expansion of Rubanick and Landrigan to Other Areas of Expertise
21-7:4 Proof of Reliability
21-7:5 New Jersey Court Rule 104 Hearing
21-7:6 Practice Point
21-7:7 Application of Kemp Standard
21-7:8 Practice Point
21-8 FEDERAL RULE OF EVIDENCE 702. TESTIMONY BY EXPERT WITNESSES
21-9 THE SUPREME COURT’S ADOPTION OF THE DAUBERT FACTORS
21-10 JUROR DISCRETION ON EXPERT TESTIMONY
21-10:1 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.13. Expert Testimony
21-11 PRACTICE POINT
21-12 TRIAL EXPERT’S USE OF HEARSAY IN FORMULATING OPINIONS
21-12:1 Experts’ Use of Hearsay
21-12:2 Use of Other Expert’s Reports
21-12:3 Complexity of Underlying Expert Opinion
21-12:4 Agha v. Feiner Circumscribes the Use of the Reports of Non-Testifying Experts
21-12:5 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.13. Expert Testimony
21-12:6 Practice Point
21-12:7 Admissibility of Expert Opinions Found in Records or Reports
21-13 EXPERTS AND THE LEARNED TREATISE RULE
21-13:1 Traditional Rule
21-13:2 Expanded Rule; New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(18). Learned Treatises
21-13:3 Procedure to Admit Learned Treatise
21-13:4 Sample Examination for Admission of Learned Treatise
21-13:5 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.13D. Optional Charge Concerning Statements From Publications
21-13:6 Practice Point
21-14 AN EXPERT CANNOT TESTIFY BEYOND THE FOUR CORNERS OF THE EXPERT REPORT
21-14:1 Relevant Rules
21-14:2 The Four Corners Rule
21-14:3 Practice Point
21-15 EXPERT’S TESTIMONY ON THE ULTIMATE ISSUE
21-15:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue
21-15:2 Discussion
21-15:3 Practice Point
21-16 DUAL EXPERT AND FACTUAL WITNESS
21-17 PRACTICE POINT
21-18 FACTUAL WITNESS WITH EXPERT KNOWLEDGE
21-19 PROOF STANDARD FOR ADMISSION OF EXPERT TESTIMONY
21-20 PROCEDURE TO SEEK TO SERVE LATE EXPERTREPORT AND ADMIT EXPERT TESTIMONY AT TRIAL
21-20:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:24-1(c). Time for Completion of Discovery
21-20:2 New Jersey Court Rule 4:17-7. Amendment of Answers
21-20:3 Discussion
21-21 EXPERT’S UNAVAILABILITY FOR TRIAL
21-21:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:36-3(c). Trial Calendar
21-21:2 Discussion
21-21:3 Practice Point
21-22 LAY EXPERT TESTIMONY
21-22:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 701. Opinion Testimony of Lay Witnesses
21-22:2 Prerequisites
21-22:3 Pure Lay Witness Testimony
21-22:4 Knowledge Based on Experience and Work on Project
21-22:5 Lay Witnesses With Specialized Knowledge
21-22:6 Where Lay Expert Testimony Crosses the Line Into Expert Testimony
21-22:7 Model Jury Charge 1.13. Expert Testimony
21-22:8 Practice Point
21-23 USE OF ANOTHER PARTY’S EXPERT AT TRIAL
21-23:1 Introduction
21-23:2 Use of an Expert Who Was Only Consulted and Whose Report Was Not Served on the Other Side
21-23:3 Withdrawal of Expert After That Expert’s Report Has Been Served and After the Deposition of the Expert Has Been Taken
21-23:4 Use of the Testimony of Another Party’s Treating Physician or Factual Expert
21-23:5 Videotape Depositions Pursuant to New Jersey Court Rule 4:14-9
21-23:6 Summary
21-24 RELIANCE ON STATUTES AND REGULATIONS IN LIEU OF EXPERT TESTIMONY
21-25 AUTHORITIES DIVIDED ON ADVERSE INFERENCE CHARGE ON EXPERT TESTIMONY
21-26 MALPRACTICE CLAIMS AGAINST PROFESSIONALS
21-26:1 Affidavit of Merit Statute
21-26:2 Common Knowledge Cases
21-26:3 Other Exceptions to Affidavit of Merit
21-26:4 Statement in Lieu of Affidavit
21-26:5 Equitable Doctrines Ameliorating the Draconian Effect of the AMS

Chapter 22: Use of Depositions and Prior Testimony at Trial
22-1 INTRODUCTION
22-2 UNAVAILABILITY
22-2:1 Generally
22-2:2  Rules
22-2:3 Definition of Unavailability
22-2:4 Diligence in Procuring Witness to Testify
22-2:5 Time to Determine Unavailability
22-2:6 Practice Point
22-2:7 Stipulation Regarding Admissibility
22-2:8 New Jersey Court Rule 4:16-1(c). Exceptional Circumstances Rule
22-3 ADVERSE INFERENCE CHARGE
22-4 DEPOSITION OF PARTY
22-4:1 Reading of Adversary’s Deposition Into Evidence
22-4:2 Completeness Doctrine Rules
22-4:3 Practice Point
22-4:4 Effect of Notice in Lieu of Subpoena in Reading Depositions
22-4:5 The Effect of Settlement on the Reading of a Party’s Deposition Into Evidence
22-5 CORPORATION OR OTHER BUSINESS ENTITY AS ADVERSARY
22-5:1 Officer or Director
22-5:2 Applicable Rules
22-5:3 Absence of Employees “Procured” by Offering Party
22-6 VICARIOUS ADMISSIONS
22-6:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(b). Statement by Party-Opponent
22-6:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(b)(4). Statements Made Within Scope of Agency or Employment
22-6:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(b)(3). Statement by Authorized Person
22-6:4 Practice Point
22-7 JOINING ADDITIONAL PARTIES
22-7:1 Risk of Losing Prior Deposition Testimony
22-7:2 Practice Point
22-8 USE OF PRIOR DEPOSITION OR OTHER TESTIMONY: THE “SIMILAR MOTIVE” REQUISITE
22-8:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804(b)(1)(A). Testimony in Prior Proceedings
22-8:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804(b)(1)(B). Testimony in Prior Proceedings
22-8:3 Application
22-8:4 Practice Point
22-8:5 Committee Comment to New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804
22-9 DE BENE ESSE DEPOSITIONS
22-9:1 Introduction
22-9:2 Procedure
22-9:3 Objective
22-10 VIDEOTAPE DEPOSITIONS
22-10:1 Parties and Lay Witnesses
22-10:2 Experts
22-11 USE OF DEPOSITION TO IMPEACH A PARTY OR WITNESS
22-11:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:16-1. Use of Depositions
22-11:2 Collateral Impeachment by Use of Other Witness’ Deposition
22-11:3 Exceptions to Use of Depositions as Collateral Impeachment: Adoptive and Vicarious Admissions
22-12 DEPOSITIONS OF EXPERTS
22-12:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:10-2(d). Deposing Expert
22-12:2 New Jersey Court Rule 4:14-9. Videotaping Experts’ Depositions
22-12:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804(b)(1)(B). Preference for Local Experts
22-13 DEPOSITIONS BEFORE ACTION—PERPETUATION OF TRIAL TESTIMONY
22-14 CONCLUSION

Chapter 23: Use of Interrogatory Answers at Trial
23-1 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 4:17-8. USE, FILING AND EFFECT OF INTERROGATORIES
23-2 GENERALLY
23-3 WHEN INTERROGATORY ANSWERS ARE DEEMED TO BE AN ADOPTIVE ADMISSION
23-3:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(b). Statement by Party-Opponent
23-3:2 Discussion
23-4 EFFECT OF SETTLEMENT ON ADMISSION OF INTERROGATORY ANSWERS
23-5 PRACTICE POINT

Chapter 24: Hearsay
24-1 INTRODUCTION
24-2 DEFINITION OF HEARSAY
24-2:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 801. Definitions
24-2:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 802. Hearsay Rule
24-2:3 Discussion
24-3 WHETHER DECLARANT IS A WITNESS AT TRIAL
24-4 NON-HEARSAY STATEMENTS
24-4:1 For What Purpose?
24-4:2 Not Admitted for the Truth of the Matter
24-5 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 803(C)(3), FORMERLY KNOWN AS “RES GESTAE,” STATEMENTS NOT DEPENDENT ON DECLARANT’S AVAILABILITY
24-6 PRACTICE POINT
24-7 RELIABILITY
24-8 PRACTICE POINT
24-9 HEARSAY RULES WHICH RELATE TO OTHER RULES OF EVIDENCE
24-9:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(a). Prior Statements of Witnesses
24-9:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(b). Statement by Party-Opponent
24-9:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(21). Reputation as to Character
24-9:4 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(22). Judgments of Previous Convictions of Crime
24-9:5 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(18). Expert Testimony
24-9:6 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(5). Recorded Recollection; New Jersey Rule of Evidence 612. Refreshing Recollection
24-10 SPECIFIC HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS
24-10:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(b). Party Admissions and Vicarious Admissions
24-10:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(6). Business Entries
24-10:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(8). Public Records
24-10:4 State Medical Examiners Act and New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(9)
24-10:5 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(7). Absence of an Entry in Records of Regularly Conducted Activity; New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(10). Absence of Public Record or Entry.
24-10:6 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(5). Recorded Recollection
24-10:7 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 808. Expert Opinions in Records
24-10:8 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(1). Present Sense Impression
24-10:9 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(2). Excited Utterance
24-10:10 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(4). Medical Diagnosis or Treatment
24-10:11 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 803(c)(25). Statement Against Interest
24-10:12 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804(b)(6). Trustworthy Statements by Deceased Declarants; New Jersey Statute 2A:81-2. Transactions With Decedent, Proof Required
24-10:13 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804(b)(1). Prior Testimony
24-10:14 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 805. Hearsay Within Hearsay
24-10:15 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 804(b)(9). Forfeiture by wrongdoing.
24-11 STATEMENTS ADMISSIBLE UNDER ALTERNATE EXCEPTIONS
24-12 REDACTION
24-13 NOTICE REQUIREMENT
24-13:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 807. Discretion of Judge to Exclude Evidence Under Certain Exceptions
24-13:2 Practice Point
24-14 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 804. HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS: DECLARANT UNAVAILABLE
24-15 WHERE HEARSAY IS ADMISSIBLE WHERE NO EXCEPTION IS APPLICABLE
24-16 FEDERAL RULE OF EVIDENCE 807. RESIDUAL EXCEPTION
24-17 PRACTICE POINT
24-18 ATTACKING THE CREDIBILITY OF THE HEARSAY DECLARANT
24-18:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Declarant
24-18:2 Discussion
24-18:3 Practice Point

Chapter 25: Authentication of Trial Exhibits
25-1 RULES
25-1:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 901. Requirement of Authentication or Identification
25-1:2 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 1001. Definitions
25-1:3 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 801. Definitions
25-2 INTRODUCTION
25-3 DEMONSTRATIVE EVIDENCE
25-4 CONDITIONAL ADMISSIBILITY
25-5 BURDEN OF PROOF
25-6 APPLICATION OF AUTHENTICATION RULES
25-6:1 Authentication of Photographs, Videotapes, DVD Simulations
25-6:2 Letters
25-6:3 Authentication of Telephone Conversations
25-6:4 Cell Phone Evidence
25-6:5 Social Media
25-6:6 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 903. Testimony of Subscribing Witness Unnecessary
25-6:7 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 1005. Public Records
25-6:8 Business Records
25-7 ORIGINALS AND DUPLICATES: THE BEST EVIDENCE RULE
25-7:1 Rules
25-7:2 Authentication of Document Which Has Been Lost
25-8 SELF-AUTHENTICATING DOCUMENTS
25-8:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 902. Self-Authentication
25-8:2 Discussion
25-8:3 Practice Point
25-9 NEW JERSEY RULE OF EVIDENCE 1006. SUMMARIES
25-10 SAMPLE TESTIMONY TO AUTHENTICATE SUMMARY
25-11 CHAIN OF CUSTODY
25-12 ADMITTING OTHER PARTS OF A WRITING
25-12:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 106. Remainder of or Related Writings or Recorded Statements
25-12:2 Discussion
25-13 AUTHENTICATING EXHIBIT BY ADMISSION OF PARTY
25-13:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 1007. Testimony or Written Admission of Party
25-13:2 Discussion
25-14 ROLE OF JUDGE AND JURY IN AUTHENTICATING DOCUMENTS
25-14:1 New Jersey Rule of Evidence 1008. Functions of Judge and Jury
25-14:2 Discussion
25-15 PRACTICE POINT
25-16 AMENDMENT TO INTERROGATORY ANSWERS AND WHETHER THE COURT WILL ADMIT EVIDENCE AT TRIAL
25-17 NEW JERSEY WIRETAPPING AND ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE CONTROL ACT, N.J.S.A 2A: 156A-1 ET SEQ.
25-17:1 Introduction
25-17:2 Authentication
25-17:3 Applicability of the Wiretapping Act

Chapter 26: The Parol Evidence Rule
26-1 INTRODUCTION
26-2 DEFINITION
26-3 APPLICATION OF THE PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
26-4 COURT VERSUS JURY DECISION-MAKING
26-5 FRAUD IN THE INDUCEMENT
26-6 OTHER DEFENSES
26-7 THE PAROL EVIDENCE RULE DOES NOT APPLY TO SUBSEQUENT AGREEMENTS
26-8 PRACTICE POINT

Chapter 27: Trial Objections
27-1 HOW TO MAKE AND PRESERVE OBJECTIONS FOR APPEAL
27-1:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:7-2. Objections
27-1:2 New Jersey Court Rule 2:10-2. Notice of Trial Errors
27-1:3 Discussion
27-2 HOW TO MAKE A RECORD ON EXCLUDED EVIDENCE
27-2:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:7-3. Record of Excluded Evidence
27-2:2 Discussion
27-3 TYPES OF OBJECTIONS
27-4 WHEN TO OBJECT
27-5 CUMULATIVE ERRORS
27-6 INVITED ERROR
27-7 PRACTICE POINTS

Chapter 28: Closing Statement
28-1 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 1:7-1(B). CLOSING STATEMENT
28-2 ORDER OF CLOSING STATEMENTS
28-3 GREAT LATITUDE ALLOWED
28-4 PROMISES MADE TO THE JURY
28-5 RESTRICTIONS ON STATEMENTS IN CLOSINGS
28-6 CURATIVE INSTRUCTIONS AND OBJECTIONS
28-7 REPLAY OF VIDEOTAPE TESTIMONY AT THE CLOSING
28-8 PERCENTAGES OF FAULT
28-9 STATEMENTS AS TO DAMAGES
28-9:1 Unliquidated Damages
28-9:2 New Jersey Court Rule 1:7-1(b). Time-Unit Rule
28-9:3 Liquidated Damages—Economic Losses
28-9:4 Summary

Chapter 29: Jury Charge and Verdict Sheet
29-1 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 1:8-7. REQUESTS TO CHARGE THE JURY; CHARGE CONFERENCE, OBJECTIONS
29-2 INSTRUCTIONS TO JURORS
29-3 OBJECTIONS TO JURY CHARGE
29-4 MODEL CIVIL JURY CHARGES
29-4:1 Practice Point
29-5 JUDGE’S COMMENTS ON EVIDENCE
29-6 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 4:39-1. SPECIAL VERDICTS
29-7 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 4:39-2. GENERAL VERDICT ACCOMPANIED BY ANSWER TO INTERROGATORIES
29-7:1 General Verdicts
29-7:2 Interrogatories
29-8 MODEL CIVIL JURY INTERROGATORIES
29-8:1 Model Civil Jury Charge 7.32. Interrogatories on Negligence Case
29-8:2 Model Civil Jury Charge 8.21. Jury Verdict Sheet in Automobile Accident Case, Including Seat Belt Defense
29-8:3 Model Civil Jury Charge 5.33A. Sample Verbal Threshold Interrogatories Under New Jersey Statute 39:6A-8
29-8:4 Model Civil Jury Charge 8.10. Sample Damage Verdict Sheet for a Personal Injury Case
29:8-5 Model Civil Jury Charge 2.21. Sample Jury Interrogatories in Discrimination Case
29-9 ADVERSE INFERENCE CHARGE
29-9:1 Model Civil Jury Charge 1.18. Witness: Failure of a Party To Produce
29-9:2 Discussion
29-9:3 Practice Point
29-10 MATERIALS IN THE JURY ROOM
29-10:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-8. Materials to be Submitted to the Jury (Exhibits and Lists; Jury Instructions)
29-10:2 Exhibits and Documents Allowed in the Jury Room
29-11 REPLAY OF WITNESS TESTIMONY
29-12 SEQUESTRATION OF JURORS AND JURORS’ VIOLATION OF COURT INSTRUCTIONS
29-12:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-6. Sequestration of Juries
29-12:2 Third Circuit Model Civil Jury Charge 1.3, Preliminary Instructions—Conduct of the Jury
29-13 REOPENING TRIAL AFTER DELIBERATIONS BEGIN
29-14 NEW JERSEY COURT RULE 1:8-9. RETURN OF VERDICT
29-14:1 Number of Jurors Necessary for a Verdict
29-15 DISMISSAL OF JURORS AFTER DELIBERATIONS HAVE BEGUN WHERE JURY IS DEADLOCKED
29-16 DEADLOCKED JURY—THE “ALLEN CHARGE”
29-16:1 Criminal Case
29-16:2 Model Criminal Jury Charge
29-16:3 Civil Cases
29-16:4 Practice Point
29-17 PERIOD OF TIME THE JURY DELIBERATES BEFORE RENDERING A VERDICT
29-18 POLLING OF THE JURY
29-18:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:8-10. Polling of Jury
29-19 QUOTIENT AND COMPROMISE VERDICTS
29:19:1 Practice Point
29-20 POST-VERDICT INTERVIEW OF JURORS PROHIBITED
29-20:1 New Jersey Court Rule 1:16-1. Interviewing Jurors Subsequent to Trial
29-21 SUMMONING JURORS BACK
29-22 INCONSISTENT VERDICTS

Chapter 30: Trial Motions
30-1 INTRODUCTION
30-2 MOTION FOR DIRECTED VERDICT
30-2:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:37-2. Involuntary Dismissal; Effect Thereof
30-3 MOTION FOR JUDGMENT
30-3:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:40-1. Motion for Judgment at Trial
30-4 MOTION FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING VERDICT
30-4:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:40-2. Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict
30-4:2 Standard
30-4:3 Asking the Court to Submit a Case to Jury Before the Court Grants Judgment
30-5 MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
30-5:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:49-1. Motion for New Trial
30-5:2 Standard
30-6 MOTION FOR REMITTITUR
30-7 MOTION FOR ADDITUR
30-7:1 Examples of Decisions on Remittitur and Additur
30-7:2 Punitive Damages and Remittitur or Additur
30-7:3 Practice Point
30-8 MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT OR ORDER
30-8:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:50 Relief from Judgment or Order
30-8:2 Motion Requirements
30-8:3 Practice Point
30-9 APPELLATE COURT RULES RELATING TO TRIAL MOTIONS
30-9:1 Against Weight of Evidence, New Jersey Court Rule 2:10-1
30-9:2 Trial Motions Toll Time to Appeal
30-9:3 New Jersey Court Rule 2:4-3. Tolling of Time for Appeal and Certification
30-10 PRACTICE POINT

Chapter 31: Spoliation of Evidence
31-1 ELEMENTS OF A SPOLIATION ACTION
31-2 NEGLIGENT SPOLIATION HAS NOT YET BEEN RECOGNIZED AS A CAUSE OF ACTION
31-3 ADVERSE INFERENCE CHARGE
31-4 TIMING OF DISCOVERY OF SPOLIATION
31-5 BIFURCATION OF TRIAL
31-6 WHEN DEFENDANT IS THE SPOLIATOR
31-7 WHEN PLAINTIFF IS THE SPOLIATOR
31-8 SPOLIATION BY THIRD PARTIES
31-9 ESSENTIAL PURPOSES SANCTIONS ARE DESIGNED TO ACHIEVE
31-10 OTHER REMEDIES AGAINST SPOLIATORS
31-11 THE ULTIMATE SANCTION: DISMISSAL OF THE CASE
31-12 SANCTIONS AGAINST ATTORNEY
31-12:1 Rule of Professional Conduct 3.4. Fairness to Opposing Party and Counsel
31-13 APPLICATION OF A SPOLIATION DEFENSE TO CRIMINAL CASES
31-14 DEFEATING A CLAIM OF SPOLIATION OF EVIDENCE
31-15 PRACTICE POINT

Chapter 32: Offer of Judgment
32-1 INTRODUCTION
32-2 OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE
32-2:1 New Jersey Court Rule 4:58-1. Time and Manner of Making and Accepting Offer
32-2:2 New Jersey Court Rule 4:58-2. Consequences of Non-Acceptance of Claimant’s Offer
32-2:3 New Jersey Court Rule 4:58-3. Consequences on Non-Acceptance of Offer of Party Not a Claimant
32-2:4 New Jersey Court Rule 4:58-4. Multiple Claims; Multiple Parties
32-2:5 New Jersey Court Rule 4:58-5. New Trial
32-2:6 New Jersey Court Rule 4:58-6. Applications for Fee; Limitations
32-3 PURPOSE OF THE OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE
32-4 SERVING, FILING AND ACCEPTING THE OFFER OF JUDGMENT
32-5 CONSEQUENCES OF NON-ACCEPTANCE OF A CLAIMANT’S OFFER OF JUDGMENT
32-6 CONSEQUENCES OF NON-ACCEPTANCE OF A NON-CLAIMANT’S OFFER OF JUDGMENT
32-7 INSTANCES WHERE THE COURT WILL DISALLOW OR REDUCE THE EFFECT OF AN OFFER OF JUDGMENT
32-7:1 Practice Point
32-8 FEE APPLICATION
32-8:1 Deadline for Filing Fee Application
32-8:2 Form of Fee Application
32-8:3 Date When Allowances Commence
32-8:4 No Duplicative Fees
32:8-5 An Offer of Judgment Will Be Awarded Where There Is a Contingency Fee Agreement
32-9 MANDATORY NATURE OF OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE
32-10 APPLICATION OF OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE IN APPEALS
32-11 HISTORY OF THE OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE
32-12 MAKING MORE THAN ONE OFFER OF JUDGMENT
32-13 MAKING AN OFFER OF JUDGMENT BY MULTIPLE PLAINTIFFS
32-14 MAKING AN OFFER OF JUDGMENT TO MULTIPLE DEFENDANTS
32-14:1 Molding of Verdict
32-15 ALTERING OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE: HIGH-LOW AGREEMENTS
32-16 FEDERAL RULE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE 68
32-16:1 Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 68 Offer of Judgment
32-16:2 Discussion
32-17 OFFER OF JUDGMENT RULE COMPARED TO FRIVOLOUS LAWSUIT RULE
32-18 PRACTICE POINT

Table of Cases
Table of Rules, Statutes and Jury Instructions
Index