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New York Employment Law

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Daniel A. Cohen, Joshua Feinstein


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New York Employment Law, by Daniel A. Cohen (Walden Macht & Haran LLP) and Joshua Feinstein (Hodgson Russ LLP),  provides a fresh, and practical overview of relevant statutes and governing case law, explaining the interplay between state, local, and federal requirements. It identifies and follows path-breaking developments presently shaping this area of law. Among other critical topics, it addresses the employment contract; common law duties of loyalty; restrictive covenants; wage and hour laws and ordinances, including minimum wage and overtime requirements; laws against discrimination based on characteristics such as race, sex, sexual orientation, disability, age, and religion; employee leave requirements; whistleblower laws; torts in the workplace, including employer liability to third parties and workers’ compensation; protected speech and privacy; reductions in force; and unemployment insurance.

  • Organized as a one-volume desk reference, New York Employment Law:
  • Tracks the body of law you need to follow year to year.
  • Narrows the focus before more costly research is employed by your associates.
  • Provides practical suggestions and expert commentary.
  • Views your matter through the eyes of respected colleagues and adversaries.
  • Examines steps employers can take to avoid litigation.
  • Identifies workplace policies that minimize liability.

New York Employment Law:

  • Updates, briefs and informs employment attorneys, business litigators, General Counsel
  • Advises human resource professionals as they interact with their legal departments.
  • Informs and equips general practitioners without an extensive law library.

New York Employment Law analyzes in detail key provisions of New York employment statutes, including the New York Labor Law, the New York State Human Rights Law, the New York False Claims Act, the New York Worker Adjustment Retraining Notification Act, and the New York Unemployment Insurance Law. In addition, this book includes an extensive discussion of local law requirements, including the significant body of case law addressing the unique requirements of the New York City Human Rights Law.
              
This resource further highlights critical differences between New York law and major federal statutes, including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (as amended), the American with Disability Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the Family and Medical Leave Act, and First Amendment case law.


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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New York Law Journal Books
  • Product Type: Books
  • Page Count: 558
  • ISBN: 978-1-62881-416-3
  • Pub#/SKU#: NEMPT18
  • Pub Date: 11/24/2017

Author Image
  • Daniel A. Cohen
Daniel A. Cohen is Special Counsel to Walden Macht & Haran LLP in New York City. Cohen has extensive litigation experience in the state and federal courts of New York, in both the trial courts and the appellate courts. His practice areas include complex commercial litigation, corporate governance, employment disputes, securities fraud, RICO, insurance coverage, and judgment enforcement.

Cohen publishes regularly on matters relating to civil procedure. Cohen is a former chair of the New York County Lawyers Association committee on insurance. Cohen also was a founding member of the Board of ALM’s online publication, New York Smart Litigator and a frequent contributor of Ask the Expert columns for that publication.
Cohen graduated from Princeton University in 1986. He received graduate degrees in philosophy from Oxford University and the University of Michigan before graduating from the University of Michigan Law School in 1994, where he was an Articles Editor of the Law Review. After law school, Cohen clerked for the Hon. J. Edward Lumbard on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals before entering private practice.


Author Image
  • Joshua Feinstein
Joshua Feinstein is a partner with Hodgson Russ LLP in Buffalo, New York. Feinstein concentrates his practice in business litigation, with an emphasis on employment discrimination cases, non-compete litigation, wage and hours disputes, municipal law, appellate work, and international and cross-border litigation, among other commercial disputes. He has tried multiple cases and has argued repeatedly before both the New York Appellate Division and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

Feinstein has written and presented on a variety of employment law topics, including recent U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence, mitigating disparate-impact liability risks, harassment, social media risks, wage and hour issues, and defending municipalities against civil rights lawsuits.  In 2014, he also received the Law Firm Pro Bono Coordinator of the Year Award from the Erie County Bar Association Volunteer Lawyers Project.  Feinstein is a cum laude graduate of New York University Law School. He received his undergraduate degree from Swarthmore College and also has a Ph.D. in modern European history from Stanford University.


ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS

Michael A. Filoromo, III is a partner with the whistleblower and employment law firm Katz, Marshall & Banks, LLP, in Philadelphia. He has helped achieve successful outcomes for numerous clients under the Sarbanes-Oxley corporate whistleblower protections, the False Claims Act and the anti-discrimination and retaliation protections of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and corresponding state laws. He regularly represents whistleblowers in the aviation, nuclear, railroad, pharmaceutical and health care industries. Filoromo is the secretary of the Eastern Pennsylvania chapter of the National Employment Lawyers Association.

Howard Schragin is a founder of Sapir Schragin LLP in White Plains, New York. He is a seasoned labor and employment attorney who handles a wide range of labor and employment matters on behalf of employees and employers, including employment discrimination, harassment, retaliation, single plaintiff, class and collective wage and hour claims (overtime and unpaid compensation), wage and hour compliance, disability and other leave-related issues, wrongful termination, contract disputes, restrictive covenants and employee benefits. He is a member of the New York State Bar Association, Labor and Employment Law Section, New York City Bar Association and Westchester County Bar Association. He has written and spoken for various organizations on a range of employment law topics.

   


Chapter 1 - The Employment Contract
1-1    THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP
1-1:1    Definitions
1-1:2    Distinction Between an Employee and an Independent Contractor
1-2    EMPLOYMENT FOR A DEFINITE TERM
1-2:1    Linking Term of Employment to an Event
1-2:2    Permanent or Lifetime Employment
1-3    JUST CAUSE AND WRONGFUL DISCHARGE
1-3:1    Grounds for Just Cause for Termination
1-3:1.1        Theft and Dishonesty
1-3:1.2        Insubordination
1-3:1.3        Disloyalty or Breach of Fiduciary Duty
1-3:1.4        Incompetence and Inefficiency
1-3:1.5        Employer Dissatisfaction
1-3:1.6        Illness or Disability
1-3:1.7        Absenteeism and Tardiness
1-3:2    Waiver
1-3:3    After-Acquired Evidence
1-3:4    Constructive Discharge
1-3:5    Common-Law Damages for Wrongful Discharge
1-3:5.1        Compensatory Damages
1-3:5.2        Liquidated Damages
1-4    EMPLOYMENT AT WILL
1-4:1    Limits to Employment at Will
1-4:2    Lack of Common Law Exceptions
1-4:3    Retaliatory Discharge of Attorneys
1-4:4    Change in Terms of Employment
1-5    THE STATUTE OF FRAUDS
1-5:1    Unenforceability of Oral Multi-Year Contracts
1-5:2    Promissory Estoppel
1-5:3    Fraudulent Inducement
1-5:4    Contract for an Indefinite Term
1-5:5 Contracts Performable Within One Year
1-5:6    Renewal of Contracts
1-6    EMPLOYEE HANDBOOKS
1-6:1    Reliance Test
1-6:2     Guidelines Versus Promises
1-6:3    Contractual Limitations on Pre-Termination Procedures

Chapter 2- The Employee’s Common Law Duties and Restrictive Covenants
2-1    THE EMPLOYEE’S DUTY OF LOYALTY
2-1:1    Duty Not to Compete With a Current Employer
2-1:2    Duty Not to Divert the Employer’s Business Opportunities
2-1:3    Duty to Protect Confidential Information and Trade Secrets
2-1:3.1    What Is a Trade Secret?
2-1:3.2    When Are Customer Lists Protected?
2-1:3.3    Misappropriation and Unfair Competition
2-1:4    Remedies
2-1:4.1    Damages
2-1:4.2    Injunctive Relief
2-2 RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS
2-2:1    Covenants Not to Compete
2-2:1.1    Sale of a Business
2-2:1.2    Protection of Trade Secrets or Customer Information
2-2:1.3    Unique or Extraordinary Services
2-2:1.4 Learned Professions
2-2:2    Reasonableness Requirement for Restrictive Covenants
2-2:2.1    Territory
2-2:2.2    Duration
2-2:2.3    Scope
2-2:2.4    Court’s Discretion as to Partial Enforcement
2-2:3    Effect of Employer Breach
2-2:4    Forfeiture Provisions and the Employee Choice Doctrine
2-2:5    Measure of Damages
2-2:6    Liquidated Damages
2-2:7    Choice of Law Provision
2-3    SOLICITATION OF A COMPANY’S EMPLOYEES
2-3:1    Common-Law Claims
2-3:2    Covenants Not to Solicit Employees


Chapter 3 - Wage and Hour Provisions
3-1    OVERVIEW
3-2    PAYMENT OF WAGES
3-2:1    Definitions
3-2:2    Frequency of Payment
3-2:2.1    Manual Workers
3-2:2.2    Railroad Workers
3-2:2.3    Commission Salesperson
3-2:2.4    Clerical or Other Worker
3-2:3    Payment of Commissions to Independent Contractor Salespersons
3-2:4    Direct Deposit of Wages
3-2:5    Deductions From Wages
3-2:5.1        Permissible Deductions
3-2:5.1a    Deductions in Accordance With Law
3-2:5.1b    Authorized Deductions for Benefit of Employee
3-2:5.41c    Deductions for Overpayments
3-2:5.1d    Deductions for Advances
3-2:5.2        Prohibited Deductions
3-2:6    Notice and Recordkeeping Requirements
3-2:6.1        Notice and Acknowledgment of Pay Rate and Payday
3-2:6.2        Penalties for Failure to Provide Notice
3-2:6.3        Wage Statements
3-2:6.4        Penalties for Failure to Provide Wage Statement
3-2:6.5        Recordkeeping Requirements
3-2:6.6        Other Notice Requirements
3-2:7    Rules Against Retaliation
3-2:8    Prohibition on Sex-Based Pay Discrimination
3-3    MINIMUM WAGE AND OVERTIME REQUIREMENTS
3-3:1    Minimum Wage Act
3-3:2    Exceptions to Minimum Wage Requirements, or Who is Not an Employee?
3-3:3    Enforcement of the Minimum Wage Act
3-3:4    Minimum Wage Orders
3-3:4.1        Introduction
    3-3:4.2    Minimum Wage Order for Miscellaneous Industries and Occupations
3-3:4.2a    Calculation of the Basic Minimum Hourly Wage Rate
3-3:4.2b    Overtime Rate
3-3:4.2c    Basis of Wage Payment
3-3:4.2d    Call-In Pay
3-3:4.2e    Split Shift and Spread of Hours Pay
3-3:4.2f    Allowances for Meals, Lodging, Tips, and Uniforms
3-3:4.2g    Rehabilitation Programs
3-3:4.2h    Required Posting
3-3:4.3        Non-Profitmaking Institutions
3-3:4.3a    Definitions
3-3:4.3b    Allowances
3-3:4.3c    Personnel Records
3-3:4.4        Minimum Wage Order for Hospitality Industry 
3-3:4.4a    Definitions
3-3:4.4b    Basic Minimum Hourly Wage
3-3:4.4c    Tip Credits
3-3:4.4d    Overtime Hourly Rates
3-3:4.4e    Call-In Pay
3-3:4.4f    Spread of Hours Greater Than Ten in Restaurants and All-Year Hotels
3-3:4.4g    Uniform Maintenance Pay
3-3:4.4h    Costs of Purchasing Required Uniforms
3-3:4.4i    Credits for Meals and Lodging
3-3:4.4j    Written Notice of Pay Rates, Tip Credit, and Pay Day
3-3:4.4k    Statement to Employee
3-3:4.4l    Posting Requirements
3-3:4.4m    Meals and Lodging
3-3:4.4n    Working at Tipped and Non-Tipped Occupations on the Same Day
3-3:4.4o    Employment Covered by More Than One Wage Order
3-3:4.4p    Tip Sharing and Tip Pooling
3-3:4.4q    Tip Sharing
3-3:4.4r    Tip Pooling
3-3:4.4s    Records of Tip Sharing or Tip Pooling
3-3:4.4t    Charge Purported to be a Gratuity or Tip
3-3:4.4u    Administrative Charge Not Purported To Be a Gratuity or Tip
3-3:4.4v    Tips Charged on Credit Cards
3-3:4.5        Minimum Wage Order for Building Service Industry
3-3:4.5a    Definitions
3-3:4.5b    Unit Rate for Janitors in Residential Buildings
3-3:4.5c    Basic Minimum Hourly Wage Rate and Overtime Rate
3-3:4.5d    Allowances for Apartments
3-3:4.5e    Allowances for Utilities
3-3:4.5f    Allowances for Tips or Gratuities
3-3:4.5g    Required Uniforms
3-3:4.5h    Allowance for Tools and Supplies
3-3:4.5i    Other Allowances
3-3:4.5j    Employer Records
3-3:4.5k    Wage Statement
3-3:4.5l    Payments in Addition to Regular Wages
3-3:4.5m    Count of Units
3-3:4.5n    Employer Residing on Building Premises
3-3:4.5o    Limitations as to Minimum Weekly Wage of Janitors
3-3:4.6    Minimum Wage Order for Farm workers, Including Occupations in Agriculture Particularly Hazardous for the Employment of Children Under the Age of 16
3-3:4.6a    Definitions
3-3:4.6b    Basis of Wage Payments
3-3:4.6c    Basic Minimum Wage Rate
3-3:4.6d    Piece Rate
3-3:4.6e    Allowances
3-3:4.6f    Posting and Notification
3-3:4.6g    Employer Records
3-4    WHITE COLLAR EXEMPTIONS TO OVERTIME
3-4:1    Generally
3-4:2    Executive Exemption
3-4:3    Administrative Exemption
3-4:4    Professional Exemption
3-4:5    Outside Salespersons
3-5    HOURS OF WORK
3-5:1    Hours That Constitute a Day’s Work
3-5:2    One Day Rest in Seven
3-5:3    Meal Periods
3-5:3.1        One Employee Shift Exception
3-5:3.2        Waiver of Meal Period
3-6    DOMESTIC WORKERS


Chapter 4- Laws Against Discrimination
4-1    OVERVIEW OF APPLICABLE STATUTES
4-1:1    New York State Human Rights Law
4-1:1.1    Remedies Under the NYSHRL
4-1:2    New York City Human Rights Law
4-1:2.1        Local Civil Rights Restoration Act of 2005
4-1:2.2        Remedies Under the NYCHRL
4-1:3    Additional Sources of State Law
4-1:3.1    New York State Constitution
4-1:3.2    Labor Law
4-1:3.3    Military Law
4-1:3.4    Correction Law
4-1:4    Federal Sources of Law
4-1:4.1        Title VII
4-1:4.2        Americans with Disabilities Act
4-1:4.3        Rehabilitation Act
4-1:4.4        Age Discrimination in Employment Act
4-1:4.5        Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act
4-1:4.6        42 U.S.C. § 1981
4-1:4.7        42 U.S.C. § 1983
4-1:5    Summary of Major Differences Among Local, State, and Federal Employment Discrimination Laws
4-2    PROHIBITED CONDUCT
4-2:1    Race and Color Discrimination
4-2:1.1        Reverse Discrimination
4-2:2    National Origin Discrimination
4-2:3    Alienage and Citizenship Discrimination
4-2:4    Sex and Gender Discrimination
4-2:4.1        Transgendered Persons and Gender Dysphoria
4-2:4.2        Sex-Plus Discrimination
4-2:4.3        Sexual Orientation Discrimination
4-2:4.4        Pay Equality
4-2:5    Age Discrimination
4-2:5.1        Exceptions to the Prohibition Against Age Discrimination
4-2:5.1a    Bona Fide Executive or High Policy Making Position
4-2:5.1b    Employee of Nonpublic Institution of Higher Education Who Attains 70
4-2:5.1c    Termination of Employees Who Are Unable to Perform Duties
4-2:5.1d    Retirement Policy or System That Is Not Merely a Subterfuge to Avoid the Purposes of the NYSHRL
4-2:5.1e    Exceptions to the Prohibition Against Age Discrimination Under the NYCHRL
4-2:5.2    Minimum Age Restrictions
4-2:6    Religious Discrimination
4-2:6.1    Religious Accommodations Under the NYSHRL
4-2:6.1a    Sabbath Accommodation Under the NYSHRL
4-2:6.2    Religious Accommodations Under the NYCHRL
4-2:6.3    Religious Accommodations Under Title VII
4-2:6.3a    Undue Hardship Analysis for Religious Accommodation Claims Under Title VII
4-2:6.4    Undue Hardship Analysis for Religious Accommodation Claims Under the NYCHRL and Title VII Compared
4-2:7    Marital Status Discrimination
4-2:8    Pregnancy Discrimination
4-2:8.1        Pregnancy Discrimination Under the NYSHRL
4-2:8.2        Pregnancy Accommodations Under the NYSHRL
4-3:8.3        Pregnancy Discrimination and Accommodations Under the NYCHRL
4-2:8.4        U.S. Pregnancy Discrimination Act
4-2:9    Familial Status
4-2:10    Disability Discrimination
4-2:10.1    Definition of Disability
4-2:10.1a    ADA
4-2:10.1b    NYSHRL
4-2:10.1c    NYCHRL
4-2:10.2    Reasonable Accommodations
4-2:10.2a    ADA
4-2:10.2b    Reasonable Accommodations Under the NYSHRL
4-2:10.2c    Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodations Under the NYCHRL
4-2:10.3    The Interactive Process
4-2:11    Family, Medical, and Parental Leave
4-2:11.1    Discrimination in Leave Prohibited
4-2:11.2    New York City Earned Sick Time Act
4-2:11.3    Federal Family and Medical Leave
4-2:11.3a    Covered Employers
4-2:11.3b    Joint Employers and Successors in Interest
4-2:11.3c    Eligible Employees
4-2:11.3d    Employee Entitlements to and During Leave
4-2:11.3e    Employer’s Rights
4-2:11.3f    Qualifying Reasons for Leave
4-2:11.3f1    Serious Health Condition
4-2:11.3f2    Continuing Treatment
4-2:11.3f3    Substance Abuse
4-2:11.3f4    Leave for Pregnancy, Birth, and Adoption and Foster Care
4-2:11.3f5    Leave Because of Qualifying Exigency
4-2:11.3f6    Military Caregiver Leave
4-2:11.4    Leave of Absence for Military Spouses: State Law Provisions
4-2:12    Persons With Criminal Convictions
4-2:12.1    New York State Correction Law
4-2:12.2    NYCHRL
4-2:12.3    Local “Ban the Box” Laws
4-2:12.3a    New York City
4-2:12.3b    Buffalo
4-2:12.3c    Rochester
4-2:12.3d    Syracuse
4-2:13    Unpaid Interns
4-2:14    Employment Statutes Discrimination Under the NYCHRL
4-2:15    Caregiver Status Discrimination Under the NYCHRL
4-2:16    Consumer Credit History Discrimination
4-3    PROVING DISCRIMINATION
4-3:1    Proving Discrimination Under the NYSHRL
4-3:2    Proving Discrimination Under the NYCHRL
4-3:3    Mixed Motive Cases
4-3:4    Use of After-Acquired Evidence
4-3:5    Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact Liability
4-3:6    Liable Parties
4-3:7    Employer
4-3:7.1        When Is a Worker an Employee?
4-3:7.2        Single Employer Doctrine
4-3:7.3        Joint Employer Doctrine
4-3:8    Aiding and Abetting Liability
4-3:9    Individual Liability Under Reconstruction Era Federal Statutes
4-4    ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES
4-4:1    New York Division of Human Rights
4-4:1.1        Filing of the Complaint, Investigation, and Determination of Probable Cause
4-4:1.2        Work-Sharing Agreement Between the Division of Human Rights and the EEOC
4-4:1.3        Conciliation
4-4:1.4        Dismissals Based on Administrative Convenience, Timeliness, or Annulment of the Complainant’s Election of Remedies
4-4:1.5        Pre-Hearing Settlement Conference
4-4:1.6        Hearings
4-4:1.7        Orders After Hearing
4-4:1.8        Preliminary Relief
4-4:1.9        Subpoenas
4-4:1.10    Judicial Review
4-4:2    New York City Commission on Human Rights
4-4:2.1        Powers and Duties of the City Commission
4-4:2.2        Filing the Complaint, Investigation and Conciliation
4-4:2.3        Dismissals for Administrative Convenience
4-4:2.4        Dismissals for Lack of Jurisdiction or No Probable Cause
4-4:2.5        Provisional Relief
4-4:2.6        Hearing Procedures
4-4:2.7        Civil Penalties
4-4:2.8        Judicial Review
4-4:2.9        Other Local Commissions
4-5    PRIVATE CAUSES OF ACTION AND STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
4-5:1    NYSHRL
4-5:2    NYCHRL
4-5:3    Tolling
4-5:4    Relation-Back Doctrine
4-5:5    Election of Remedies
4-5:6    Notice of Claim
4-5:7    Accrual of Discrimination Claims

Chapter 5- Whistleblower Programs and Protections in New York
5-1    OVERVIEW
5-2    NEW YORK STATE STATUTES
5-2:1    New York Whistleblower Law
5-2:1.1        Covered Employers and Employees
5-2:1.2        Protected Activity
5-2:1.3        Retaliation
5-2:1.4        Causation
5-2:1.5        Procedure
5-2:1.6        Relation to Other Laws and Remedies
5-2:1.7        Available Remedies
5-2:2    New York Healthcare Whistleblower Law
5-2:2.1        Covered Employers and Employees
5-2:2.2        Protected Activity
5-2:2.3        Retaliatory Action
5-2:2.4        Causation
5-2:2.5        Procedure
5-2:2.6        Relation to Other Laws and Remedies
5-2:2.7        Available Remedies
5-2:3    New York Public Sector Whistleblower Law
5-2:3.1        Covered Employers and Employees
5-2:3.2        Protected Activity
5-2:3.3        Adverse Personnel Action
5-2:3.4        Causation
5-2:3.5        Procedure
5-2:3.6        Relation to Other Laws and Remedies
5-2:3.7        Available Remedies
5-2:4    New York False Claims Act
5-2:4.1        New York False Claims Act Liability and Qui Tam Suits
5-2:4.1a    Elements of NYFCA Claims
5-2:4.1b    Filing a Qui Tam Claim – The Litigation Process
5-2:4.1c    Awards to Qui Tam Relator
5-2:4.1d    Statutory Bars to Qui Tam Actions
5-2:4.2        Anti-Retaliation Provisions of the New York False Claims Act
5-2:4.2a    Covered Employers and Employees
5-2:4.2b    Protected Activity
5-2:4.2c    Employer Awareness
5-2:4.2d    Adverse Action
5-2:4.2e    Causation
5-2:4.2f    Procedure
5-2:4.2g    Available Remedies
5-2:5    New York Workers’ Compensation Retaliation Law
5-2:5.1        Covered Employers and Employees
5-2:5.2        Protected Activity
5-2:5.3        Adverse Employment Action
5-2:5.4        Causation Standard
5-2:5.5        Litigation Process
5-2:5.6        Available Remedies
5-2:6    Occupational and Public Safety and Health Protections
5-2:6.1        Public Employee Safety and Health Act
5-2:6.1a    Covered Employers and Employees
5-2:6.1b    Protected Activity
5-2:6.1c    Adverse Action
5-2:6.1d    Causation Standard
5-2:6.1e    Procedure
5-2:6.1f    Available Remedies
5-2:6.2        School Employees Who Report Violence or Weapons
5-2:6.3        Protections for Reporting Violations of Toxic Substances Laws
5-2:6.4        Protections for Reporting Violations of Motor Vehicle Safety Laws
5-2:7    Protections for Workers Reporting Violations of Industry Fair Play Acts
5-2:7.1        Protections for Reporting Violations of the Commercial Goods Transportation Industry Fair Play Act
5-2:7.2        Protections for Reporting Violations of the Construction Industry Fair Play Act
5-2:8    Protections for Healthcare Employees Reporting Patient Care Issues
5-2:8.1        Employees of Long-Term Care Facilities
5-2:8.2        Employees of Facilities for Patients with Developmental Disabilities
5-2:8.3        Employees of Residential Healthcare Facilities
5-2:8.4        Employees of Residential Facilities Providing Social Service
5-3    NEW YORK COMMON LAW
5-4    FEDERAL STATUTES
5-4:1    Consumer and Investor Whistleblower Statutes
5-4:2    Transportation Industry Whistleblower Statutes
5-4:3    Environmental Whistleblower Statutes
5-4:4    Statutes Relating to Fraud on the Government or Misconduct Within the Government

Chapter 6 – Torts and the Workplace
6-1    THE EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY TO THIRD PARTIES
6-1:1    Respondeat Superior
6-1:1.1        Scope of the Employer’s Liability
6-1:1.2        Liability for Intentional Acts
6-1:1.3        Liability for Independent Contractors
6-1:1.4        Negligence by the Employer
6-1:2    Principal-Agent Liability
6-1:2.1        Liability for Employee Fraud
6-1:2:2        Ratification
6-1:2:3        Adverse Agents
6-2    WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
6-2:1    Types of Benefits Available
6-2:1.1        Medical Treatment
6-2:1.2        Compensation for Period of Disability
6-2:1.3        Death Benefits
6-2:2    Overview of Claim Process
6-2:2.1        Notice of Claim
6-2:2.2        Filing of Claim
6-2:2.3        Obligation to Pay or Timely Controvert Claims
6-2:2.4        Payment of Medical Bills
6-2:2.5        Medical Examination of Employee
6-2:2.6        Settlement
6-2:2.7        Pre-Hearing Conference
6-2:2.8        Hearing and Award
6-2:2.9        Modification of Award
6-2:2.10    Appeal
6-2:3    Exclusive Remedy Rule and Its Exceptions
6-2:3.1        Failure to Secure Workers’ Compensation
6-2:3.2        Intentional Injury
6-2:3.3        Written Contract to Contribute or Indemnify
6-2:3.4        Grave Injury
6-2:4    Requirement That Employment Have Causal Nexus to Injury
6-2:4.1        Personal Activity and Horseplay
6-2:4.2        Travel to and From the Workplace
6-2:5    Exceptions to Employee Eligibility for Workers’ Compensation
6-2:6    Determination of Whether Injured Party Is an Employee
6-2:7    Special Employers
6-2:8    Work-Related Stress
6-2:9    Liens and Third-Party Actions
6-2:10    Fraud
6-2:11    Employer Retaliation

Chapter 7 - PROTECTED SPEECH AND PRIVACY
7-1    SPEECH PROTECTIONS
7-1:1    Overview
7-1:2    Matter of Public Concern
7-1:3    Balancing Test
7-1:4    Employee Statements Pursuant to Official Duties
7-1:5    Affirmative Defense
7-1:6    New York State Law Speech Protections
7-1:6.1        State Constitutional Protections
7-1:6.2        State Labor Law Protections
7-1:6.3        State Executive Law Protections
7-2    ROMANTIC RELATIONS
7-3    DRUG TESTING
7-3:1    Introduction
7-3:2    Public Employers
7-3:3    Private Employers
7-3:4    New York State Law
7-4    MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS
7-4:1    Federal Law
7-4:2    State Law
7-5    DEFAMATION AND EMPLOYMENT REFERENCES


Chapter 8    Reductions in Force
8-1    NEW YORK WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND RETRAINING NOTIFICATION ACT
8-1:1    Generally
8-1:2    Comparison Between the New York and Federal Acts
8-1:3    Exceptions to the NY WARN Act Requirements
8-1:4    Penalties and Damages

Chapter 9- Unemployment Insurance
9-1    FEDERAL-STATE SYSTEM
9-2    NEW YORK UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE
9-3    ELIGIBILITY
9-3:1    Employers
9-3:2    Employees
9-3:3    Eligible Claimants
9-4    BENEFITS AND CONTRIBUTIONS
9-4:1    Calculation and Duration of Benefits
9-4:2    Employer Contributions
9-5    GROUNDS FOR DENIAL
9-5:1    Voluntary Separation
9-5:2    Refusal of Employment
9-5:3    Misconduct
9-5:4    Criminal Act
9-5:5    Industrial Controversy
9-5:6    Willful False Statement
9-6    CLAIMS
9-6:1    Making a Claim for Benefits
9-6:2    Initial Determinations
9-6:3    Administrative Law Judge Hearings
9-6:4    Unemployment Insurance Appeal Board
9-6:5    Benefits During Pendency of Appeal
9-7    PENALTIES
9-7:1    Civil Penalties
9-7:2    Criminal Penalties