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Pennsylvania eDiscovery

Philip N. Yannella

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Introducing Pennsylvania eDiscovery


Today’s legal teams are under more pressure than ever—particularly with the exponential growth in data volume and information complexity. Management of electronically stored information is becoming increasingly critical to the legal profession. Pennsylvania eDiscovery,written by Philip N. Yannella of Ballard Spahr LLP, is the seminal volume on this subject.

What electronic information is discoverable?

How do I counsel clients to preserve electronic content to avoid sanctions for spoliation?

How can eDiscovery be less costly and time-consuming?

How do I manage the complexities of an eDiscovery request?

All your eDiscovery answers are provided in Pennsylvania eDiscovery by Mr. Yannella, the practice leader of his firm's eDiscovery and Data Management Group. Mr. Yannella manages eDiscovery issues in high-profile litigation and counsels clients worldwide on data preservation,retrieval and privacy matters. He also has significant experience representing Fortune 500 companies on eDiscovery and data management issues in bet-the-company litigation.



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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: The Legal Intelligencer
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 1st
  • Page Count: 375
  • ISBN: 978-1-57625-878-1
  • Pub#/SKU#: ped14
  • Pub Date: 08/31/2014

Chapters include:

  • Preservation

  • Issues in Electronic Document Production

  • Proportionality

  • Cost-Shifting and Discovery Phasing

  • Social Media

  • Third-Party Discovery

  • Civil Discovery and Computer Trespass Law

  • Discovery of Foreign Documents

  • Sanctions

  • eDiscovery in Criminal Cases

  • Compendium of Procedures and Forms in Pennsylvania Courts

Author Image
  • Philip N. Yannella
    Philip N. Yannella is the Practice Leader of Ballard Spahr’s eDiscovery and Data Management Group and a member of the firm’s Data Privacy and Security Group. He manages eDiscovery issues in high-profile litigation, counseling clients and attorneys worldwide on data preservation, retrieval, and privacy matters. He has significant experience representing Fortune 500 companies on eDiscovery and data management issues in bet-the-company litigation, particularly in the pharmaceutical and health care industries.
Mr. Yannella has served as the principal member of national discovery teams in large-scale litigation and has experience advising on cross-border data collection matters. He is highly experienced in discovery coordination and management, overall discovery strategy and litigation readiness, records management, ethical rules relating to eDiscovery and data management, the Stored Communications Act, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, U.S. Safe Harbor regulations, and international data privacy law. He regularly writes and lectures on a wide array of eDiscovery, privacy and security issues.  
Mr. Yannella is also a member of the firm's Product Liability Groups. He has more than 15 years’ experience representing a wide range of manufacturers – including numerous pharmaceutical and medical device companies – in products liability, catastrophic injury and consumer fraud litigation, from case filing through trial. Mr. Yannella has served in a national coordinating role in mass tort litigation relating to a COX-2 inhibitor, weight loss medication, diabetes medication, a statin,  tobacco products, anti-anemia medication, antipsychotic medication, and latex gloves. He has also represented manufacturers, refineries and other institutions in litigation involving motor oil, forklifts, popcorn products, asbestos products,  herbicides, refining operations, and plant explosions. 
Mr. Yannella is a member of Sedona Conference Institute (International Data Privacy, eDiscovery, and Cross-Border Data Transfer Issues Working Groups), the American Records Management Association, and the Defense Research Institute.  He is a graduate of Temple University (Phi Beta Kappa, summa cum laude) and Temple Law School, where he served on moot court and as a member of the Temple Political and Civil Rights Law Review. He is a former adjunct professor for Temple University, where he taught a course on Constitutional Law
                 


Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Duty to Preserve Electronic Evidence
Daniel A. Nadel ....................................................................................1
1-1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………….1
1-2 WHEN DOES THE DUTY TO PRESERVE ATTACH? ………………1
1-3 SCOPE OF THE DUTY TO PRESERVE ……………………………..4
1-3:1 Scope of Duty to Preserve in Pennsylvania
State Court....................................................................4
1-4 LITIGATION HOLDS: BEST PRACTICES.............................5
1-5 WHO MUST PRESERVE ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS?.....7
1-5:1 Key Players....................................................................7
1-5:2 Possession, Custody, and Control..................................8
1-5:3 Duties of Foreign Subsidiaries, Parents,
and Siblings.................................................................10
1-6 ELECTRONIC DATA GENERALLY NOT SUBJECT
TO THE DUTY TO PRESERVE.............................................11
1-7 SOCIAL MEDIA AND PERSONAL MOBILE DEVICES.....13
1-8 SEEKING COURT RELIEF TO PRESERVE AND
PRODUCE DOCUMENTS.....................................................15
1-8:1 Expedited Discovery....................................................16
1-9 PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO FEDERAL
RULE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE 37(E)....................................17
Chapter 2: Issues in Electronic Document Production ............................19
2-1 DOCUMENT COLLECTION.................................................19
2-1:1 Forensic Imaging.........................................................20
2-1:2 The Perils of “Self-Collection”....................................23
2-2 DOCUMENT REVIEW...........................................................24
2-2:1 Keyword Searching and Linear Review.......................24
2-2:2 Improving Keyword Searching....................................24
2-2:3 Computer Assisted Review..........................................25
2-3 DOCUMENT PRODUCTION................................................26
2-3:1 Metadata.....................................................................27
2-3:2 Metadata: Practice Notes............................................29
2-3:3 Native File Format......................................................30
2-3:4 Production Logs..........................................................32
2-3:5 Producing Documents as They Are Kept “In the
Usual Course of Business”..........................................33
2-3:6 Producing Documents in Pennsylvania State Court.....34
2-4 THE DUTY TO COOPERATE................................................35
2-4:1 The Duty to Cooperate in Practice..............................37
2-4:2 Search Terms...............................................................38
2-4:3 Discovery of Legal Hold Memoranda.........................40
2-4:4 Discovery About Discovery.........................................41
2-4:5 The Duty of Competence............................................42
2-5 PROTECTIVE ORDER GOVERNING
CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS.............................................43
2-5:1 Protective Orders: Practice Notes................................44
2-6 AUTHENTICATION OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS.....48
2-6:1 Authenticating Text and Instant Messages...................49
2-6:2 Authenticating Special Document Types.....................51
Chapter 3: Proportionality Ruth Uselton .......................53
3-1 OVERVIEW..............................................................................53
3-2 THE FEDERAL STANDARD................................................56
3-3 CONSIDERATIONS................................................................59
3-3:1 Cost.............................................................................59
3-3:2 Relevance.....................................................................63
3-4 ACCESSIBILITY OF DATA....................................................64
3-4:1 Burden to Prove Data Not Reasonably Accessible.......64
3-4:2 Types of Documents Not Reasonably Accessible.........65
3-4:2.1 Databases...................................................66
3-4:2.2 Backup Tapes.............................................68
3-4:2.3 Ephemeral Data..........................................69
3-4:2.4 Metadata....................................................70
3-4:2.5 Voicemails...................................................71
3-4:2.6 Wikis..........................................................72
3-5 PROPORTIONALITY IN PENNSYLVANIA
STATE COURTS......................................................................72
Chapter 4: Cost-Shifting Joseph J. Gribbin.......................75
4-1 OVERVIEW..............................................................................75
4-1:1 The Cost-Shifting Framework of the Federal
Rules of Civil Procedure and Zubulake........................75
4-1:2 Third Circuit District Court Applies the
Advisory Committee’s Note Factors to
Determine Whether eDiscovery Should be
Produced at All............................................................79
4-1:3 Third Circuit District Courts Apply Zubulake
Factors for Cost-Shifting Between Parties....................82
4-2 COST-SHIFTING REQUIRES A FACT-INTENSIVE
INQUIRY..................................................................................82
4-2:1 Courts Applying the Zubulake Factors Under
Rule 26(b)....................................................................83
4-2:2 Zubulake Factors for Cost-Shifting Under
Rule 45(d)(1) for Nonparty Production.......................86
4-3 COST-SHIFTING FOR PRE-CLASS-CERTIFICATION
DISCOVERY.............................................................................90
4-4 TAXATION OF COSTS...........................................................92
4-5 COST-SHIFTING FOR OTHER REASONS..........................96
4-6 COST-SHIFTING UNDER PENNSYLVANIA
RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE...........................................97
4-7 DISCOVERY PHASING..........................................................99
Chapter 5: Social Media Trevor Salter .................................103
5-1 OVERVIEW............................................................................103
5-1:1 Duty to Preserve........................................................104
5-1:2 Possession, Custody and Control...............................104
5-1:3 Stored Communications Act......................................104
5-1:4 Mechanics of Preservation.........................................104
5-1:5 Authenticating Social Media......................................105
5-2 DISCOVERY OF SOCIAL MEDIA.......................................105
5-2:1 Emerging Use of the “Threshold Rule” in
Pennsylvania Courts..................................................106
5-2:2 Privacy.......................................................................108
5-2:3 Proportionality..........................................................110
5-3 MECHANISMS FOR OBTAINING SOCIAL
MEDIA CONTENT...............................................................110
5-3:1 Requesting Usernames and Passwords.......................111
5-3:2 Subpoenaing Content From the Social Media
Service Providers........................................................112
5-3:3 Court Orders Compelling Consent to Access
Social Media Accounts..............................................113
5-3:4 Court Orders Compelling Responding Party
to Accept a Friend Request........................................113
5-3:5 Use of Third Party to Collect Relevant Social
Media Content..........................................................114
5-4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS...........................................114
5-4:1 Communicating With Represented Parties
Through Social Media...............................................114
5-4:2 Communicating with Unrepresented Parties..............115
5-4:3 Advising Clients on Posting/Removing Content........115
Chapter 6: Non-Party Discovery Benjamin M. Schmidt ...................117
6-1 NON-PARTY DISCOVERY: PENNSYLVANIA
FEDERAL LAW....................................................................117
6-1:1 Form and Contents of eDiscovery Subpoenas...........117
6-1:2 Issuing Court.............................................................119
6-1:3 Notice to Other Parties Before Service of
Subpoenas Seeking eDiscovery..................................119
6-1:4 Serving Subpoenas.....................................................120
6-1:4.1 Service in the United States......................120
6-1:4.2 Service in a Foreign Country....................120
6-1:5 Place of Compliance for Production Subpoenas........121
6-1:6 Protecting a Person Subject to a Subpoena
Seeking eDiscovery....................................................121
6-1:6.1 Avoiding Undue Burden or Expense;
Sanctions..................................................122
6-1:6.2 Command to Produce Materials or
Permit Inspection......................................122
6-1:6.3 Factors Applicable in Evaluating
“Undue Burden” Objections.....................123
6-1:6.4 Cost and Fee Shifting Under Rule 45........125
6-1:6.5 “Significant” Expenses Under Rule 45......127
6-1:6.6 Objections to Administrative
Subpoenas................................................130
6-1:6.7 Objections Based Upon First
Amendment Rights...................................130
6-1:6.8 Quashing or Modifying a Subpoena.........131
6-1:7 Duties in Responding to a Subpoena Seeking
eDiscovery.................................................................133
6-1:7.1 Producing Documents or ESI...................133
6-1:7.2 Claiming Privilege or Protection...............134
6-1:8 Findings of Contempt...............................................134
6-1:8.1 Range of Sanctions Available to
Enforce Subpoenas...................................135
6-1:8.2 Right to Immediate Appeal of
Contempt Orders Pursuant to Rule 45......137
6-1:9 Requests For Preservation of ESI Possessed
By Non-Parties..........................................................137
6-2 NON-PARTY DISCOVERY: PENNSYLVANIA
STATE LAW...........................................................................138
6-2:1 The Importance of Notes and Explanatory
Comments in Construing the Pennsylvania
Rules of Civil Procedure Addressing Non-
Party eDiscovery........................................................138
6-2:2 Explanatory Comments Concerning the Federal
System of Discovery and ESI....................................138
6-2:3 Rules Authorizing Service of Subpoenas to
Produce......................................................................139
6-2:4 Notice to Other Parties Before Service of
Subpoena to Produce.................................................140
6-2:5 Service of Subpoenas.................................................141
6-2:5.1 Certificate Prerequisite to Service of
Subpoena to Produce................................141
6-2:5.2 Form of Subpoena to Produce..................141
6-2:5.3 Form of Certificate of Compliance...........144
6-2:5.4 Service of a Subpoena Upon Persons
Within the Commonwealth.......................145
6-2:5.5 Service of Subpoena Upon Persons
Outside the Commonwealth.....................145
6-2:6 Rules Protecting a Person Subject to a Subpoena
to Produce eDiscovery...............................................147
6-2:6.1 Specification of Format for Production
of ESI and Objections..............................147
6-2:6.2 Protections and Enforcement Provisions
of the General Discovery Rules Apply
to Non-Party Discovery............................148
6-2:6.3 Specificity Required..................................148
6-2:6.4 Five-Factor Proportionality Standard......148
6-2:6.5 Cost Sharing.............................................149
6-2:6.6 Limitation of Scope of Discovery
of ESI.......................................................150
Chapter 7: Civil Discovery and Computer Trespass Law ......................151
7-1 OVERVIEW............................................................................151
7-2 THE STORED COMMUNICATIONS ACT (SCA)..............152
7-2:1 Overview of SCA.......................................................152
7-2:2 Section 2701...............................................................153
7-2:2.1 Meaning of “Facility”...............................153
7-2:2.2 “Electronic Storage”.................................154
7-2:2.3 Exemptions for Users and Internet
Service Providers.......................................156
7-2:3 Section 2702...............................................................157
7-2:3.1 Meaning of “Contents”............................157
7-2:3.2 Covers Only “Public” Service Providers....158
7-2:4 Damages Available Under the SCA...........................159
7-2:5 Impact of SCA on Civil Discovery............................160
7-2:5.1 Legal Control Over SCA-Protected
Accounts...................................................161
7-2:5.2 Consent and Employer Electronic
Communications Policies..........................162
7-3 PENNSYLVANIA COMPUTER TRESPASS LAWS............167
7-3:1 Comparison to SCA..................................................167
7-3:2 Invasion of Privacy....................................................167
7-4 COMPUTER FRAUD & ABUSE ACT (CFAA)....................169
7-4:1 Overview....................................................................169
7-4:2 Application of CFAA in Discovery Process...............169
7-4:3 Employee Excessive Use Claims................................170
7-4:4 Damages Available Under CFAA..............................172
Chapter 8: Discovery of Foreign Documents .......................................175
8-1 OVERVIEW............................................................................175
8-2 AEROSPATIALE, THE HAGUE CONVENTION,
AND FOREIGN BLOCKING STATUTES..........................176
8-2:1 Jurisdictional Discovery Under Aerospatiale.............178
8-2:2 Foreign Data Privacy Laws........................................179
8-2:3 Foreign Blocking Statutes..........................................180
8-2:3.1 Personal Data...........................................181
8-2:3.2 Is Data Processing Permissible?................181
8-2:3.3 Procedures for Data Processing................184
8-2:3.4 Onward Transfer.......................................186
8-2:3.5 Local Filing Requirements........................187
8-3 FLOWCHART FOR COMPLIANCE WITH DATA
PRIVACY LAWS....................................................................187
Chapter 9: Sanctions Meredith C. Swartz ........................189
9-1 OVERVIEW............................................................................189
9-2 SPOLIATION.........................................................................189
9-2:1 Pennsylvania State Law.............................................189
9-2:1.1 Sliding Scale.............................................191
9-2:1.1a Willfulness/Spoliator’s
Degree of Fault...........................192
9-2:2 Third Circuit Case Law..............................................194
9-2:2.1 Sliding Scale.............................................194
9-2:2.1a Willfulness / Spoliator’s
Degree of Fault...........................196
9-2:2.1b Prejudice.....................................198
9-2:2.1c Substantial Unfairness and
Deterrence..................................202
9-2:3 Proposed Federal Rule of Civil
Procedure 37(e).........................................203
9-3 FAILURE TO COOPERATE AND VIOLATION
OF COURT ORDERS............................................................204
9-3:1 Pennsylvania State Law.............................................204
9-3:1.1 Failure to Cooperate.................................204
9-3:1.1a Failure to Provide Sufficient
Answers to Deposition
Questions....................................205
9-3:1.1b Failure to Respond to
Interrogatories............................205
9-3:1.2 Violation of Court Orders........................206
9-3:1.2a Disproportionate Sanctions
Reversed.....................................207
9-3:1.2b Proportionate Sanctions
Upheld........................................209
9-3:2 Federal Law Applicable in Pennsylvania....................212
9-3:2.1 The Same Basic Standard Governs
Failure to Cooperate and Violation of
Court Orders............................................212
9-3:2.2 General Standard......................................213
9-3:2.2a Exclusion of Evidence................213
9-3:2.2b Dismissals with Prejudice and
Defaults......................................215
9-3:2.2b1 Extent of the Party’s Personal
Responsibility.........................216
9-3:2.2b2 Prejudice to the Adversary......216
9-3:2.2b3 History of Dilatoriness...........217
9-3:2.2b4 Whether the Attorney’s
Conduct Was Willful or in
Bad Faith................................218
9-3:2.2b5 Availability of Alternative
Sanctions................................220
9-3:2.2b6 Meritoriousness of the Claim
or Defense..............................221
9-4 OTHER DISCOVERY MISCONDUCT................................222
9-4:1 Availability of Sanctions for Insufficient or
Non-Existent Legal Hold...........................................222
9-4:1.1 Pennsylvania State Law............................222
9-4:1.2 Federal Law..............................................224
9-4:1.2a Triggering the Duty to
Preserve......................................224
9-4:1.2b Obligations Once Duty to
Preserve Attaches........................226
9-4:1.2c Failure to Issue a Litigation Hold,
or Issuance of an Insufficient Legal
Hold, Can be a Proper Basis
for Sanctions...............................226
9-4:2 Sanctions Against Third Parties for Failure to
Comply with a Subpoena or Preserve Documents
Pursuant to a Court-Issued Preservation Order.........231
9-4:2.1 Pennsylvania State Law............................231
9-4:2.2 Federal Law..............................................231
9-4:2.2a Contempt Authority – Fed. R.
Civ. P. 45(g).................................231
9-4:2.2b Duty to Identify and Preserve
Responsive Documents and
Other Information......................232
9-4:2.2c Form for Producing Electronically
Stored Information (ESI)............233
9-4:3 Document Dumps.....................................................233
9-4:3.1 Pennsylvania State Law............................233
9-4:3.2 Federal Law..............................................234
9-4:3.2a General Principles.......................234
9-4:3.2b Appropriate Sanctions................235
9-4:3.2c White Collar Defense –
Prosecution’s Satisfaction of
Brady Obligations.......................236
9-4:4 Failure to Produce Documents in the Form in
Which They are Maintained or in a Reasonable
Useable Form............................................................237
9-4:4.1 Pennsylvania State Law............................237
9-4:4.2 Federal Law..............................................237
9-4:4.2a Production of Documents as
Maintained in the Ordinary
Course of Business.....................238
9-4:4.2b Production of Documents in
a Reasonably Usable Format......240
Chapter 10: eDiscovery in Criminal Cases
Jonathan S. Satinsky ..........................................................................243
10-1 OVERVIEW............................................................................243
10-2 INTERPLAY WITH CIVIL RULES......................................244
10-2:1 Brady Considerations.................................................245
10-3 REAL-TIME CELL PHONE AND GPS
INFORMATION....................................................................245
10-3:1 Search of Cell Phone Data Following Arrest.............245
10-3:2 Real-Time Location Information...............................246
10-4 COMPUTER HARD DRIVES..............................................247
10-4:1 Time and Location of Review....................................247
10-4:2 Search Breadth..........................................................248
10-4:3 Third Party Access.....................................................248
10-4:4 Encrypted Data.........................................................249
10-4:5 Reasonable Suspicion Search for Parolees..................249
10-5 INFORMATION HELD BY THIRD PARTY
SERVICE PROVIDERS..........................................................249
10-5:1 Fourth Amendment Protection..................................250
10-5:2 SCA Protection..........................................................250
10-5:2.1 Section 2701..............................................251
10-5:2.2 Section 2702..............................................251
10-5:2.3 Section 2703..............................................252
10-5:3 Contents of Wire and Electronic Communications....252
10-5:4 Government Burden..................................................253
10-6 WIRETAP ACT......................................................................253
10-6:1 Section 2511...............................................................254
10-6:2 Sections 2516–2518....................................................254
10-6:3 Exceptions.................................................................254
10-6:3.1 Section 2511(2)(g)(i).................................254
10-6:3.2 Section 2511(2)(a)(i).................................255
10-6:3.3 Section 2511(2)(c).....................................255
10-7 PENNSYLVANIA WIRETAP ACT.......................................256
10-7:1 Strict Construction....................................................256
10-7:2 Active Participation...................................................256
10-7:3 Consensual Wiretapping............................................257
10-7:4 Preemption................................................................257
Chapter 11: Compendium of Procedures and Forms in
Pennsylvania Courts ........................................................................259
11-1 LOCAL COURT RULES ADDRESSING
EDISCOVERY IN PENNSYLVANIA....................................259
11-2 FEDERAL DISTRICT COURT LOCAL RULES
RELATING TO E-DISCOVERY...........................................261
11-2:1 U.S. District Court for the Middle District of
Pennsylvania..............................................................261
11-2:2 U.S. District Court for the Western District of
Pennsylvania..............................................................263
11-3 FEDERAL JUDGES’ STANDING RULES
RELATING TO EDISCOVERY............................................264
11-4 DISTRICT OF DELAWARE RULES FOR
EDISCOVERY........................................................................284
11-5 DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY LOCAL RULES
ADDRESSING DIGITAL DISCOVERY..............................290
11-5:1 District of New Jersey Local Rule 26.1(D)................290
11-5:2 District of New Jersey Standard Confidentiality
Order.........................................................................292
Table of Cases..301
Index..317