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New York Business Litigation

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By David Marriott


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New York Business Litigation, edited by David R. Marriott, brings together 15 preeminent attorneys as chapter authors in this New York title  published by the New York Law Journal.

Each chapter is authoritative in its treatment of both black letter law in the text and supporting case or statutory authority in footnotes. Whether you are drafting pleadings, drafting legal memoranda for motions or marshaling evidence for trial, you will want to reference the collective expertise of these notable lawyer authors.

Directors & Officers Liability
Gregory A. Markel, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP

Partnership Liability
Paul Spagnoletti, Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP

Oppressed Minority Shareholders
Robyn F. Tarnofsky, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP

Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b 5
Jonathan K. Youngwood, Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett LLP

Antitrust
Karin DeMasi, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP

Restrictive Covenants under New York Law
M. Alexander Bowie, II, Day Pitney LLP

RICO and OCCA
Katya Jestin, Jenner & Block LLP

Tortious Interference with Contract in New York
Teena-Ann Sankoorikal, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP

Business Fraud
Mei Lin Kwan-Gett, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP

The Lanham Act and Unfair Competition in New York
Peter Macdonald, WilmerHale

Privacy Protections
Randi W. Singer, Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP

Employment Law Litigation
Howard Z. Robbins, Proskauer Rose LLP

Limited Liability Companies
William Wallace, Clifford Chance LLP

Breach of Contract
John S. Kiernan, Debevoise & Plimpton LLP

Trade Secrets
P. Anthony Sammi, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP


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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New York Law Journal Books
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 2018
  • Page Count: 886
  • ISBN: 978-1-62881-461-3
  • Pub#/SKU#: NBUSL18
  • Pub Date: 11/28/2018

Chapters Authors Include: Gregory A. Markel, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP; Paul Spagnoletti, Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP; Robyn F. Tarnofsky, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP; Jonathan K. Youngwood, Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett LLP; Karin A. DeMasi, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP; M. Alexander Bowie, II, Day Pitney LLP; Katya Jestin, Jenner & Block LLP; Teena-Ann Sankoorikal, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP; Mei Lin Kwan-Gett, Wilkie, Farr & Gallagher LLP; Peter Macdonald, Wilmer Hale; Randi W. Singer, Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP; Howard Z. Robbins, Proskauer Rose LLP; William Wallace, Clifford Chance LLP; John S. Kiernan, Debevoise & Plimpton; Anthony Sammi, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP.

Author Image David R. Marriott is a partner in Cravath Swaine & Moore LLP's Litigation Department. His practice focuses on litigation, generally business litigation and litigation in the areas of intellectual property, securities and antitrust.

Chapters Authors Include: Gregory A. Markel, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP; Paul Spagnoletti, Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP; Robyn F. Tarnofsky, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP; Jonathan K. Youngwood, Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett LLP; Karin A. DeMasi, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP; M. Alexander Bowie, II, Day Pitney LLP; Katya Jestin, Jenner & Block LLP; Teena-Ann Sankoorikal, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP; Mei Lin Kwan-Gett, Wilkie, Farr & Gallagher LLP; Peter Macdonald, Wilmer Hale; Randi W. Singer, Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP; Howard Z. Robbins, Proskauer Rose LLP; William Wallace, Clifford Chance LLP; John S. Kiernan, Debevoise & Plimpton; Anthony Sammi, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP.

Chapter 1: Directors & Officers Liability
1-1 INTRODUCTION
1-2 DUTIES OF A DIRECTOR OR OFFICER
1-2:1 General Obligations of Directors and Officers
1-2:2 Reliance on Reports by Experts and by Third Parties and on Records
1-2:3 The Business Judgment Rule
1-3 TYPES OF CLAIMS AGAINST DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS
1-4 DIRECT ACTIONS
1-5 CLASS ACTIONS
1-6 SHAREHOLDER DERIVATIVE SUITS
1-6:1 Derivative Suits Defined
1-6:2 Demand Futility
1-6:3 Demand Refused
1-6:4 Standing
1-6:5 Special Litigation Committees
1-6:6 Derivative Versus Direct Actions
1-7 BREACH OF FIDUCIARY DUTY
1-8 USURPING CORPORATE OPPORTUNITIES
1-9 PURCHASE AND SALE OF STOCK BASED ON INSIDE INFORMATION
1-10 WASTE OF CORPORATE ASSETS
1-11 CORPORATE LIABILITY FOR THE ACTS OF A PRINCIPAL
1-12 LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITY SET FORTH IN THE CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
1-13 RATIFICATION
1-14 INDEMNIFICATION
1-14:1 Indemnification of the Corporation
1-14:2 Indemnification of Directors and Officers
1-15 INSURANCE
1-16 CRIMINAL LIABILITY OF PERSONS ACTING OR UNDER A DUTY TO ACT FOR CORPORATIONS
1-17 DIRECTOR CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

Chapter 2: Partnership Liability
2-1 INTRODUCTION
2-2 NEW YORK PARTNERSHIP LAW
2-3 LIABILITY AMONG PARTNERS
2-3:1 Fiduciary Duties
2-3:2 Partner’s Rights and Interest in the Partnership
2-3:3 Partnership Versus Personal Property
2-3:4 Suits Among Partners
2-3:5 Dissolution
2-3:6 Accounting
2-3:7 Appointment of a Receiver
2-3:8 Minority Partners
2-3:9 Fiduciary Duty of Partners Upon Dissolution
2-4 LIABILITY TO THIRD PARTIES
2-4:1 Acts Which Bind the Partnership
2-4:2 Liability for Tortious Acts of Partners
2-4:3 Liability for Breach of Contract
2-4:4 Ratification
2-4:5 Proving the Existence of a Partnership
2-4:6 Partnership by Estoppel
2-4:7 New Partners
2-4:8 Withdrawing Partners
2-4:9 Liability to Third Parties Upon Dissolution
2-5 REGISTERED LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS
2-5:1 Introduction and Governing Law
2-5:2 Partner Liability
2-5:3 Eligibility Requirements
2-5:4 Formation
2-5:5 Post-Formation
2-5:6 Registered Foreign Limited Liability Partnerships (“RFLLPs”)
2-6 LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS
2-6:1 Introduction
2-6:2 Article 8 Limited Partnerships
2-6:3 Article 8-A Limited Partnerships
2-6:4 Derivative Actions
2-6:5 Determining Partnership Property
2-6:6 Dissolution
2-7 JOINT VENTURES
2-7:1 Introduction
2-7:2 Formation
2-7:3 Post-Formation

Chapter 3: Oppressed Minority Shareholders
3-1 INTRODUCTION
3-2 COMMON LAW DISSOLUTION
3-3 STATUTORY CONDITIONS PRECEDENT AND JUDICIAL CONSTRUCTION OF BCL §§ 1104-A AND 1118
3-3:1 Statutory Conditions Precedent
3-3:2 Illegal, Fraudulent, or Oppressive Conduct Under BCL § 1104-a(a)(1)
3-3:3 Looting, Wasting, or Diverting Corporate Assets Under BCL § 1104-a(a)(2)
3-3:4 Buy-Out Rights Under BCL § 1118
3-4 REMEDIES
3-4:1 Interim Remedies
3-4:2 Remedies in Common Law Dissolution Actions
3-4:3 Remedies in Dissolution Actions Under BCL § 1104-a
3-5 VALUATION OF SHARES
3-5:1 Valuation Assumptions
3-5:2 Valuation Techniques
3-5:3 Marketability and Minority Discounts and Interest

Chapter 4: Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5
4-1 INTRODUCTION
4-2 ELEMENTS OF RULE 10B5 GENERALLY: PLAINTIFFS’ PRIMA FACIE CASE
4-3 PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER RULE 10B5
4-4 STANDING: PLAINTIFF MUST BE ACTUAL PURCHASER OR SELLER OF SECURITIES
4-4:1 Exceptions to Purchaser—Seller Designation
4-4:2 Relationship Required Between Plaintiff and Defendant
4-5 ELEMENT: MANIPULATIVE, DECEPTIVE OR FRAUDULENT CONDUCT
4-5:1 Misstatements
4-5:2 Nondisclosure and Omissions
4-5:3 Opinions, Predictions, and Puffery
4-5:4 Mismanagement or Breach of Fiduciary Duty
4-5:5 Market Manipulation
4-5:6 Insider Trading and Release of Non-Public Market Information
4-6 ELEMENT: MATERIALITY
4-7 ELEMENT: SCIENTER
4-7:1 Actual Intent Evidenced through Motive and Opportunity
4-7:2 Strong Circumstantial Evidence of Conscious Misbehavior or Recklessness
4-8 ELEMENT: IN CONNECTION WITH THE PURCHASE OR SALE
4-9 ELEMENT: BY MEANS OF THE MAILS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE, OR NATIONAL SECURITIES EXCHANGE
4-10 ELEMENTS: RELIANCE AND CAUSATION
4-10:1 Proving Reliance
4-10:2 Loss Causation
4-11 POTENTIAL PERSONS LIABLE
4-11:1 Must Have “Ultimate Authority” Over Contents of Statement to Be “Maker”
4-11:2 Aiders and Abettors
4-12 PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CONSIDERATIONS
4-12:1 Statute of Limitations
4-12:2 Jurisdiction and Venue
4-12:3 Proof Issues
4-13 REMEDIES
4-13:1 “Actual Damages,” i.e., “Out-of-Pocket” Loss
4-13:2 “Benefit-of-the-Bargain”
4-13:3 Restitution and Rescission
4-13:4 Injunctive Relief
4-13:5 Punitive Damages Unavailable
4-13:6 Multiple Defendant Issues
4-14 DEFENSES, PLAINTIFF DOES NOT ESTABLISH PRIMA-FACIE CASE
4-14:1 Misrepresentation or Omission: No “Fraud by Hindsight”
4-14:2 Misrepresentation or Omission: No “Fraud After the Fact”
4-14:3 Non-Materiality Defenses
4-14:4 Lack of Scienter Defenses
4-14:5 “In Connection With” Purchase or Sale of Securities Defenses
4-14:6 Lack of Reliance Defenses
4-14:7 Lack of Causation Defenses
4-15 OTHER DEFENSES
4-15:1 Statute of Limitations
4-15:2 Laches and Estoppel
4-15:3 Waiver
4-16 RELATED OR ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS
4-16:1 Other Federal Actions
4-16:2 New York Statutory Schemes and Common Law Causes of Action

Chapter 5: Antitrust
5-1 INTRODUCTION
5-2 STATUTORY OVERVIEW
5-3 SHERMAN ACT
5-3:1 Sherman Act § 1 - Restraint of Trade
5-3:2 Sherman Act § 2 - Monopolization
5-4 CLAYTON ACT
5-4:1 Section 7
5-4:2 Section 8
5-5 FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT
5-5:1 Introduction
5-5:2 Unfair Methods of Competition
5-5:3 Unfair and Deceptive Trade Practices
5-5:4 Administrative Hearing Process
5-6 THE ROBINSON-PATMAN ACT
5-6:1 Price Discrimination
5-6:2 Affirmative Defenses
5-6:3 Other Prohibitions Under the R-P Act
5-7 ENFORCEMENT, STANDING, AND GEOGRAPHIC REACH
5-7:1 Enforcement
5-7:2 Antitrust Standing
5-7:3 Remedies: Damages and Injunction
5-7:4 Statute of Limitations
5-7:5 Geographic Reach of the Sherman Act Under the FTAIA
5-8 DONNELLY ACT
5-8:1 The Donnelly Act
5-8:2 Basic Provisions of the Donnelly Act
5-8:3 Federal Preemption
5-8:4 Penalties and Damages
5-8:5 Statutes of Limitations
5-9 INTERSECTION OF ANTITRUST LAW AND PHARMACEUTICALS
5-9:1 Antitrust Implications of the Hatch-Waxman Framework
5-9:2 Antitrust Implications of Generic Substitution Laws
5-10 CONCLUSION

Chapter 6: Restrictive Covenants Under New York Law
6-1 INTRODUCTION
6-1:1 Definition
6-1:2 Types of Restrictive Covenants
6-1:3 Purpose of Restrictive Covenants
6-2 CASE LAW GOVERNING THE ENFORCEMENT OF RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS
6-2:1 Absence of Statutory Law
6-2:2 Court of Appeals Decisions Regarding Reasonableness
6-2:3 Expansion of the Reasonableness Factors
6-3 COMPONENTS OF REASONABLENESS
6-3:1 Element 1: The Restrictive Covenant Must be Necessary to Protect a Legitimate Interest of the Employer
6-3:2 Elements 2 and 3: Duration and Geographic Scope Must Be Proportional to Protected Interest
6-3:3 Element 4: The Restrictive Covenant May Not Be Unreasonably Burdensome to the Former Employee
6-3:4 Element 5: The Restrictive Covenant Must Not Harm the General Public
6-3:5 Other Considerations in Evaluating the Reasonableness of the Restrictive Covenant
6-4 APPLICABILITY TO SPECIFIC PROFESSIONS
6-4:1 Health Care Professionals
6-4:2 Salespersons
6-4:3 Independent Contractors
6-4:4 Lawyers
6-5 REMEDIES FOR VIOLATION OF A RESTRICTIVE COVENANT
6-5:1 Generally
6-5:2 Enforceability of Arbitration Agreements
6-5:3 Injunctive Relief
6-5:4 Damages
6-5:5 Partial Enforcement
6-6 DEFENSES TO ENFORCEMENT
6-6:1 Statute of Limitations and Jurisdiction Issues
6-6:2 Waiver
6-6:3 Lack of Consideration
6-6:4 Unconscionability
6-6:5 Effect of Employee’s Involuntary Discharge Under a Contract
6-7 OTHER ISSUES RELATED TO RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS
6-7:1 Tortious Interference
6-7:2 Antitrust

Chapter 7: RICO and OCCA
7-1 INTRODUCTION
7-2 RICO
7-2:1 Overview
7-2:2 RICO Elements: 18 U.S.C. § 1962
7-2:3 Standing Under § 1964(c): The Civil RICO Claim
7-2:4 Criminal Penalties and Civil Remedies
7-2:5 Jurisdiction and RICO Filing Prerequisites
7-3 ENTERPRISE CORRUPTION: ARTICLE 460.00
7-3:1 Overview
7-3:2 Elements of Enterprise Corruption
7-3:3 Criminal Enterprise
7-3:4 Pattern of Criminal Activity
7-3:5 Predicate Crimes
7-3:6 Defendant Must “Participate” in the Pattern of Criminal Activity
7-3:7 Specific OCCA Crimes: Operation; Investment; Acquisition
7-3:8 The Interests of Justice
7-3:9 Criminal Punishment and Other OCCA Remedies
7-3:10 Additional Procedural and Jurisdictional Issues

Chapter 8: Tortious Interference with Contract in New York
8-1 INTRODUCTION
8-2 ELEMENTS OF TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACT IN NEW YORK
8-2:1 Valid Enforceable Contract Between Plaintiff and Third Party
8-2:2 Defendant Had Actual Knowledge of the Contract
8-2:3 Defendant’s Intentional Conduct Caused the Third Party’s Breach of Contract Without Justification
8-2:4 Plaintiff Incurred Damages as a Result of Third Party’s Breach
8-3 ELEMENTS OF TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH ECONOMIC RELATIONS
8-3:1 Business Relationship with Third Party
8-3:2 Interference with Business Relationship
8-3:3 Intended Purpose of Harming Plaintiff or Use of Dishonest, Unfair, or Improper Means
8-3:4 Injury to Business Relationship Caused by Interference
8-4 DEFENSES TO TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACT
8-4:1 Economic Interest Defense
8-4:2 Attorney-Client Relationships as a Defense
8-5 DEFENSES TO TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH ECONOMIC RELATIONS
8-5:1 Defendant’s Status as Competitor: “Professional Persuasion”
8-5:2 Interference with Indefinite Term Contracts
8-5:3 Interference with At-Will Employment Contracts
8-6 APPLICATION IN CASELAW
8-6:1 Employment Contracts
8-6:2 Real Estate Broker Prospective Contracts
8-6:3 Mergers and Acquisitions

Chapter 9: Business Fraud
9-1 INTRODUCTION
9-2 FRAUD CLAIMS UNDER COMMON LAW
9-2:1 Common Law Fraud
9-2:2 Equitable Fraud
9-2:3 Fraudulent Concealment
9-2:4 Constructive Fraud
9-2:5 Negligent Misrepresentation
9-2:6 Aiding and Abetting
9-2:7 Conspiracy
9-3 CAUSATION
9-4 BURDENS OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTIONS
9-5 DAMAGES AND REMEDIES
9-5:1 Choice of Legal or Equitable Remedies
9-5:2 Legal Remedies
9-5:3 Third Party Remedies
9-6 DEFENSES
9-6:1 Defending a Claim of Fraud
9-6:2 Asserting Fraud as an Affirmative Defense
9-7 PLEADING REQUIREMENTS
9-7:1 Must Plead Fraud with Particularity
9-7:2 Statute of Limitations

Chapter 10: The Lanham Act and Unfair Competition in New York
10-1 INTRODUCTION
10-2 MARKS
10-2:1 Trademark
10-2:2 Distinguishing Marks
10-2:3 Service Mark
10-2:4 Collective Mark
10-2:5 Certification Mark
10-3 TRADE DRESS
10-4 TRADEMARK PROTECTION/INFRINGEMENT
10-4:1 Mark Ownership/Priority Rights
10-4:2 Infringement
10-4:3 Contributory Infringement
10-4:4 Corporate Officer Liability
10-4:5 Losing Protections
10-5 CYBERSQUATTING
10-6 OTHER UNFAIR COMPETITION
10-7 FALSE DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN
10-7:1 Passing Off/Palming Off
10-7:2 Trade Dress Infringement
10-7:3 Color
10-7:4 False Advertising
10-7:5 Dilution
10-8 DEFENSES
10-8:1 Fair Use
10-8:2 Laches
10-8:3 Unclean Hands
10-8:4 Abandonment
10-9 DAMAGES/REMEDIES
10-9:1 Injunctions
10-9:2 Monetary Relief
10-9:3 Agreements by the Parties

Chapter 11: Privacy Protections
11-1 INTRODUCTION
11-1:1 History
11-1:2 Exclusive Statutory Right
11-1:3 New York Does Not Recognize Common Law Privacy Rights
11-2 STATUTORY RIGHT OF PRIVACY: CIVIL RIGHTS LAW §§ 50-51
11-2:1 Elements of Violation of Right of Privacy Claim
11-2:2 No Common Law Right of Publicity in New York
11-2:3 Defenses and Exceptions
11-2:4 Remedies
11-3 DATA PRIVACY
11-3:1 Data Breach Notification
11-3:2 Protection of Social Security Numbers
11-3:3 Use of Credit and Debit Cards
11-3:4 Internet Security and Privacy
11-3:5 Recent State Developments
11-3:6 Federal Developments
11-4 OTHER SPECIFIC PRIVACY PROVISIONS
11-4:1 Confidentiality of Personnel Records of Certain Law Enforcement and Court Officers
11-4:2 Prohibition on Disclosing Identity of Victims of Sexual Offenses
11-4:3 Prohibition on Disclosing Certain Medical Records
11-4:4 Surveillance
11-4:5 Social Networks
11-4:6 “Do Not Call” Registry

Chapter 12: Employment Law Litigation
12-1 INTRODUCTION
12-2 THE NEW YORK STATE HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
12-2:1 Overview
12-2:2 Forms of Discrimination; Elements and Burdens of Proof
12-2:3 Enforcement
12-2:4 Remedies
12-2:5 Related Federal Laws
12-2:6 Related Local Laws
12-3 WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION
12-4 PROTECTION OF LAWFUL POLITICAL OR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
12-5 EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS
12-5:1 Overview
12-5:2 Express Contracts
12-5:3 Implied Contracts
12-5:4 Employee Handbooks
12-5:5 Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing
12-5:6 Cause for Discharge
12-5:7 Remedies
12-6 TORT CLAIMS IN THE EMPLOYMENT CONTEXT
12-6:1 Overview
12-6:2 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
12-6:3 Negligence
12-6:4 Tortious Interference with Contractual Relations
12-6:5 Fraudulent Inducement
12-6:6 Defamation
12-7 ARBITRATION OF EMPLOYMENT CLAIMS

Chapter 13: Limited Liability Companies
13-1 INTRODUCTION
13-1:1 History and Purpose of the Limited Liability Company
13-1:2 Management and Governance
13-2 GOVERNING LAW
13-2:1 The New York Limited Liability Company Law
13-2:2 The Operating Agreement
13-2:3 Delaware LLC Law and Internal Affairs Doctrine
13-3 MEMBER AND MANAGER LIABILITY
13-3:1 Fiduciary Duties of Managers
13-3:2 Fiduciary Duties of Promoters
13-3:3 Fiduciary Duties: Release of Liability
13-3:4 Duty of Care and Loyalty
13-3:5 Derivative Actions
13-3:6 Member Right to Inspect Books and Records
13-3:7 Indemnification
13-3:8 Compulsory Capital Calls
13-3:9 Appointment and Removal of Managers
13-3:10 Arbitration
13-3:11 Attorney-Client Privilege
13-4 THIRD-PARTY LIABILITY
13-4:1 Liability of Members and Managers to Third Parties
13-5 DISASSOCIATION AND DISSOLUTION
13-5:1 Events Giving Rise to Claim for Dissolution
13-5:2 Member Expulsion
13-5:3 Rights of a Disassociated Member
13-5:4 Right to Equitable Liquidation and Accounting
13-5:5 Rights to Recover Principal Investment
13-5:6 Mergers
13-6 FOREIGN LLCS
13-6:1 Application for Authority to Do Business in New York
13-6:2 Doing Business Without a Certificate
13-6:3 Foreign Professional Service Limited Liability Companies
13-6:4 Domesticating a Foreign LLC

Chapter 14: Breach of Contract
14-1 INTRODUCTION
14-2 ELEMENTS OF CONTRACT FORMATION
14-2:1 Offer and Acceptance
14-2:2 Mutual Assent and Intent to be Bound
14-2:3 Consideration
14-3 PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACT INTERPRETATION
14-3:1 Intent of the Parties
14-3:2 Reasonable Expectations of the Parties
14-3:3 The Contract as a Whole
14-3:4 Ambiguous Contracts
14-3:5 Parol Evidence Rule and Merger Clauses
14-4 CHALLENGES TO THE ENFORCEMENT OF A CONTRACT
14-4:1 Unconscionability
14-4:2 Fraud
14-4:3 Mistake
14-4:4 Economic Duress
14-5 RESCISSION AND REFORMATION
14-5:1 Rescission
14-5:2 Reformation
14-5:3 Statute of Limitations
14-5:4 Pleading Requirements
14-6 BREACH
14-6:1 Overview
14-6:2 Types of Breach
14-6:3 Statute of Limitations
14-6:4 Standing
14-6:5 Waiver of Breach
14-6:6 Excuses for Failure to Perform
14-7 DAMAGES
14-7:1 Overview
14-7:2 Types of Damages
14-7:3 Mitigation
14-7:4 Specific Performance as an Alternative to Damages
14-7:5 Limitations on Liability

Chapter 15: Trade Secrets
15-1 INTRODUCTION
15-2 GOVERNING LAW
15-3 DEFINITION OF A TRADE SECRET
15-3:1 No Universally Accepted Definition
15-3:2 Commonly Asserted Trade Secrets
15-4 MISAPPROPRIATION OF TRADE SECRETS
15-4:1 Elements of Misappropriation
15-4:2 Specific Identification Required
15-4:3 Statute of Limitations
15-4:4 Remedies
15-5 PROTECTING TRADE SECRETS DURING LITIGATION
15-5:1 Confidentiality Orders
15-5:2 In Camera Review and Sealing of Records
15-6 TRADE SECRETS AND NEW YORK’S FREEDOM OF INFORMATION LAW
15-6:1 FOIL Generally
15-6:2 Exemption from Disclosure
15-7 THE FEDERAL DEFEND TRADE SECRETS ACT

Table of Cases
Index