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Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses

Ernest Badway

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Newly Updated and Revised Edition!


The Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses is a single volume annual paperback. It is a quick starting point for virtually any civil case containing New York civil actions, legal principles and defenses. The book compiles, outlines, and indexes theories of recovery under New York law. There is nothing like it available to NY practitioners. 

   

For managing partners and litigation departments, this book brings associates up to speed quickly, while reducing training time and expense in preparing briefs and pleadings.

There is also an extensive common word index facilitating a direct review of the potential universe of causes of actions, principles and defenses, and tables of cases and statutes.

When appropriate, the Cause of Action will reference authorities for defense, including statutes of limitation. The Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses, is a quick reference to unfamiliar subjects, a welcome resource for firms without an extensive law library
 
This title is perfect for solo practitioners and small firms. It will save time analyzing client problems and preparing pleadings by pin-pointing the starting point of an action before employing more costly research. This is an inexpensive desk reference for virtually any case that walks in your door!

   

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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New York Law Journal Books
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 0
  • ISBN: 978-1-62881-117-9
  • Pub#/SKU#: NCOA17
  • Pub Date: 05/27/2016
  • Volume(s): 1
  • Frequency: Annually

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  • Ernest Badway

About the Author

 

           

Ernest Edward Badway is a litigation partner at Fox Rothschild LLP, where he co-chairs the Securities Industry Group, and previously co-chaired the White Collar Compliance and Defense Group. His practice areas include securities litigation and regulatory matters, internal investigations, white-collar criminal defense, commercial litigation and corporate law specializing in private placements, initial public offerings and the creation of broker-dealers, investment advisors and hedge funds. He is admitted to practice law in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and the District of Columbia as well as the United States Supreme Court, the United States Courts of Appeals for the Second and Third Circuits and the United States District Courts for New Jersey, Massachusetts, the Northern, Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, and the District of Columbia. He received his J.D. in 1992 from Duke University School of Law, and received a Master’s degree in History as well as a Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Economics, magna cum laude with distinction in History, from Boston University’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and College of Liberal Arts

Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Agency or Fiduciary Causes of Action
1-1 Agent Breaching Fiduciary Duty to Principal................................................1
1-2 Agent Negligent in Collecting Debt................................................................2
1-3 Agent’s Liability for Principal’s Obligation....................................................2
1-4 Agent’s Negligence Causing Harm to Others.................................................2
1-5 Agent’s Personal Liability on Contract...........................................................3
1-6 Bailments........................................................................................................3
1-7 Caring for Collateral or Security....................................................................4
1-8 Charitable Organization Liable for Wrongdoing............................................5
1-9 Consignee Liability for Damaged Art............................................................5
1-10 Co-Sureties Contributing on Debt Default.....................................................5
1-11 Escrow Agent Improperly Disbursing Funds..................................................6
1-12 Faithless Servant Doctrine..............................................................................6
1-13 Fiduciary Breaching Duty............................................................................11
1-14 Fraudulent Concealment by Fiduciary..........................................................12
1-15 Obligor Aiding Agent Disloyalty to Principal..............................................13
1-16 Temporary Receiver Appointments...............................................................13
1-16:1 “Necessity” Receiver...........................................................13
1-16:2 Receiver Under “Receiver Clause”......................................14
1-17 Warehouseman or Carrier Liability for Goods.............................................14
1-18 Warehouseman or Carrier Lien on Goods....................................................15
1-19 Warehouseman Elements..............................................................................15
Chapter 2
Attorney and Legal Services Causes of Action
2-1 Attorney Malpractice...................................................................................17
2-2 Attorney Increasing Inadequate Contingency Fee........................................18
2-3 Claim for Attorney’s Fees.............................................................................19
2-4 Judiciary Law § 487 (Attorney Deceit).........................................................19
2-5 Legal Fraud..................................................................................................20
2-6 Legal Malpractice in Criminal Cases...........................................................20
Chapter 3
Banking, Commercial Paper and Creditor Causes of Action
3-1 Bank Leaving Funds Transfer Incomplete....................................................23
3-2 Bank Misconduct when Relying on Power of Attorney................................23
3-3 Bank Mishandling Funds Transfer...............................................................24
3-4 Bankrupt’s Voiding of Preferential Transfer of Property.............................24
3-5 Bank’s Wrongful Dishonor of Negotiable Instrument..................................24
3-6 Bank’s Wrongful Payment of Negotiable Instrument...................................25
3-7 Bounced Check Causing Damage.................................................................25
3-8 Certified or Cashier’s Check Wrongfully Dishonored..................................26
3-9 Checking Account Funds Misappropriated by Fiduciary.............................27
3-10 Collecting Bank Late Objection to Negotiable Instrument..........................27
3-11 Collecting Bank Mishandling Negotiable Instrument..................................28
3-12 Credit Issuer Dishonoring or Repudiating....................................................28
3-13 Debtor Lying to Creditor About Assets........................................................28
3-14 Debtor’s Fraudulent Conveyance..................................................................29
3-15 Electronic Fund Transfer Privacy or Safety Violation..................................29
3-16 Enforcement of Security Interest Delegating Seller’s Performance.............29
3-17 Fraudulent Negotiable Instrument Paid or Taken........................................29
3-18 Lessee’s Default on Lease of Goods.............................................................30
3-19 Lessor’s Breach of Implied Warranty on Goods...........................................30
3-20 Lessor’s Breach of Express Warranty on Goods..........................................31
3-21 Lessor’s Default on Lease of Goods.............................................................32
3-22 Letter of Credit Obligation Breached...........................................................32
3-23 Mistaken Payment on Draft Returned.........................................................33
3-24 Mortgage Contingency Loan Exacting Illegal Commission........................33
3-25 Mortgage Exacting Illegal Points and Prepayments Fees............................34
3-26 Mortgage Holder Breaching Escrow Obligations.........................................34
3-27 Mortgagee Failing to Cancel Redeemed Mortgage......................................35
3-28 Negotiable Instrument..................................................................................36
3-29 Negotiable Instrument Forged or Stolen.......................................................36
3-30 Negotiable Instrument Signed for Accommodation......................................37
3-31 Noncompliance with Secured Transactions Laws.........................................37
3-32 Spouse Liable for Other Spouse’s Debt........................................................38
3-33 Registration of Investment Security Transfer Denied...................................38
Chapter 4
Constitutional Causes of Action
4-1 Grand Jury Proceedings Unlawfully Disclosed............................................41
4-2 Inverse Condemnation..................................................................................41
4-3 Privacy Invasion............................................................................................42
4-4 State Constitutional Rights Violation...........................................................42
4-5 State Destruction of Private Property..........................................................43
4-6 State Taking Land Requiring Compensation...............................................43
4-7 Taking...........................................................................................................44
4-8 De Facto Taking...........................................................................................44
4-9 Regulatory Taking........................................................................................45
Chapter 5
Contract or Quasi-Contract Causes of Action
5-1 Accounting....................................................................................................47
5-2 Account Stated..............................................................................................47
5-3 Anticipatory Breach of Contract...................................................................48
5-4 Breach of Contract Causing Damage...........................................................48
5-5 Breach of Implied Covenant of Good Faith And Fair Dealing......................49
5-6 Buyer Recovering Specifically Identified Goods...........................................50
5-7 Careless Contractual Work..........................................................................51
5-8 Child’s Right to Rescind Contract................................................................51
5-9 Confusing Language in Written Contract....................................................52
5-10 Constructive Fraud in Contract....................................................................52
5-11 Consumer Contract Containing Unlawful Provision....................................53
5-12 Consumer Credit Billing Error.....................................................................54
5-13 Consumer Goods Leased under Unconscionable Circumstances..................54
5-14 Consumer Loan Broker Acting Improperly..................................................55
5-15 Contract........................................................................................................55
5-16 Contract Performance Interfered With by Outsider.....................................56
5-17 Contract Rescission......................................................................................56
5-18 Coverage for Causes Extending From Insured Risk.....................................57
5-19 Duress Permitting Contract Rescission........................................................57
5-20 Fraud by Others Outside Contract...............................................................58
5-21 Fraud Permitting Reformation or Rescission...............................................58
5-22 Goods Sold and Delivered.............................................................................58
5-23 Guaranty.......................................................................................................59
5-24 Implied Contract...........................................................................................59
5-25 Insane Party Rescinding Contract................................................................59
5-26 Insolvent Buyer Having Bought Goods.........................................................60
5-27 Insolvent Lessor Having Leased Goods........................................................60
5-28 Insolvent Seller Having Sold Goods.............................................................60
5-29 Intentional Interference With Contractual Relationship..............................61
5-30 Intentional Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage.................61
5-31 Limited Partnership Certificate Containing Falsehood................................62
5-32 Malicious Interference With Contract Rights..............................................62
5-33 Malicious Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage...................63
5-34 Money Had and Received.............................................................................63
5-35 Mutual Mistake in Contract.........................................................................63
5-36 Obligation to Pay Services Sought for Other...............................................64
5-37 Overpayment on Contract Recovered...........................................................64
5-38 Promise Causing Detrimental Reliance........................................................64
5-39 Promissory Estoppel.....................................................................................65
5-40 Quantum Meruit...........................................................................................65
5-41 Quasi-Contract.............................................................................................66
5-42 Recoupment for Contract Breach Harming Outsider...................................67
5-43 Reliance on Another’s Conduct (Estoppel)...................................................67
5-44 Rescission and Cancellation of Written Instruments (Fraud).......................67
5-45 Rescission and Cancellation of Written Instruments (Misrepresentations).....................................................................................68
5-46 Sale of Goods Breached by Buyer.................................................................68
5-47 Sale of Goods Breached by Seller.................................................................69
5-48 Sale of Personal Property.............................................................................69
5-49 Substantial Performance of Contract Allowing Recovery............................69
5-50 Third-Party Beneficiary...............................................................................70
5-51 Unconscionability Permitting Contract Rescission......................................71
5-51:1 Substantive Unconscionability.............................................71
5-51:2 Procedural Unconscionability.............................................71
5-52 Unilateral Mistake in Contract....................................................................72
5-53 Unjust Enrichment........................................................................................72
5-54 Warranty on Goods Breached by Seller........................................................73
Chapter 6
Corporate and Partnership Causes of Action
6-1 Association and Membership Liability.........................................................75
6-2 Association Membership Wrongfully Interfered With.................................75
6-3 Avoiding the Corporate Liability Shield or Piercing the Corporate Veil......76
6-4 Business Judgment Rule...............................................................................77
6-5 Business Partner Breaching Fiduciary Duty to Co-Partner.........................77
6-6 Corporate Officer Participating in Tort........................................................77
6-7 Cost of Defending Against Derivative Suit...................................................78
6-8 Director’s Liability to Shareholders..............................................................78
6-9 Improperly Buying Securities During Corporate Takeover..........................79
6-10 Member Liability in Joint Enterprise...........................................................80
6-11 Minority Shareholder Freeze-Out................................................................80
6-12 Partner Breaching Duty To Co-Partner.......................................................80
6-13 Partnership Liability For Debts....................................................................81
6-14 Partnership Liability for Injury....................................................................81
6-15 Principal/Promoter Liability for Post-Incorporation Debt..........................81
6-16 Principal’s/Promoter’s Bad Faith Liability For Real Estate Broker’s Commission..................................................................................................82
6-17 Redeeming Shares In Company Merger Or Sale.........................................82
6-18 Sales Commission Due From Principal........................................................83
6-19 Successor Corporation Liable for Predecessor ............................................83
6-20 Usurpation of Corporate Opportunity..........................................................84
Chapter 7
Damage-Related Causes of Action
7-1 Breach Of Contract Lost Profits Damages..................................................85
7-2 Contribution..................................................................................................85
7-3 Indemnification from Person Ordering Tort.................................................86
7-4 Interest Awarded on Damages......................................................................86
7-5 Punitive Damages Due From Tortfeasor......................................................87
7-6 Recovery or Contribution From Tortfeasor..................................................88
7-7 Tortious Conduct Lost Profits Damages .....................................................88
Chapter 8
Employer-Employee Causes of Action
8-1 Competition with Employer or Principal......................................................89
8-1:1 Claim for Employee Breach of Fiduciary Duty....................89
8-1:2 Claim for Misappropriation and Unfair Competition..........90
8-2 Contractual Covenant Not to Compete Violated..........................................90
8-3 Employer Breach of Employee Manual........................................................90
8-4 Employer Improperly Handling Employee Wages........................................91
8-5 Employer Liability for Employee Act...........................................................91
8-6 Employer Retaliation Against Employee......................................................92
8-7 Hostile Work Environment Sexual Harassment..........................................93
8-8 Negligent Hiring...........................................................................................93
8-9 New York City Human Rights Law..............................................................94
8-10 New York State Human Rights Law............................................................94
8-11 Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment...............................................................95
8-12 Sex Discrimination In Wage Payment.........................................................96
8-13 Work Environment Harassment...................................................................97
8-14 Work, Labor and Services (Quantum Meruit)..............................................97
8-15 Wrongful Discharge in Violation of Company Policy...................................98
Chapter 9
Equitable Causes of Action
9-1 Equitable Estoppel........................................................................................99
9-2 Equitable Fraud............................................................................................99
9-3 Equitable Subrogation................................................................................100
9-4 Estoppel by Deed........................................................................................100
9-5 Estoppel In Pais..........................................................................................100
9-6 Incorporation (Or Corporation) By Estoppel..............................................101
9-7 Implied Indemnification..............................................................................101
9-8 Impounding Property to Pay Debt.............................................................101
9-9 Impress a Trust...........................................................................................102
9-10 Injunctions (Preliminary)...........................................................................102
9-11 Reformation of Written Instruments..........................................................103
9-12 Restitution Despite Contract Breach..........................................................103
9-13 Resulting Trust...........................................................................................104
9-14 Specific Performance..................................................................................104
Chapter 10
Family and Matrimonial Causes of Action
10-1 Adoption.....................................................................................................105
10-2 Annulment..................................................................................................105
10-3 Custody and Visitation................................................................................107
10-3:1 Custody.............................................................................107
10-3:2 Visitation Rights of Sibling...............................................108
10-3:3 Visitation of Grandparents................................................108
10-3:4 Enforcement of Visitation..................................................109
10-3:5 Enforcement of Visitation—Temporary Order..................110
10-4 Divorce........................................................................................................110
10-4:1 No-Fault Divorce..............................................................110
10-4:2 Fault Divorce.....................................................................111
10-4:3 Abandonment....................................................................111
10-4:4 Adultery............................................................................112
10-4:5 Cruel and Inhuman Treatment...........................................113
10-4:6 Imprisonment....................................................................114
10-4:7 Living Apart Pursuant to Separation Agreement...............114
10-4:8 Living Apart Pursuant to Separation Decree.....................115
10-5 Guardianship..............................................................................................116
10-5:1 Guardianship of Minor .....................................................116
10-5:2 Guardianship of Mentally Retarded/Developmentally Disabled....119
10-5:3 Guardianship of Adult.......................................................119
10-5:4 Waste of Assets.................................................................121
10-6 Separation From Bed and Board................................................................121
10-7 Paternity.....................................................................................................122
Chapter 11
Insurance Causes of Action
11-1 Insurance Policy.........................................................................................125
11-2 Insurance Broker Liability..........................................................................125
11-3 Insurance Broker Malpractice....................................................................126
11-4 Insurance Carrier Defrauded or Exploited.................................................126
11-5 Insurance Carrier Supplying Defense of Suit.............................................127
11-6 Insurance Carrier’s Bad Faith.....................................................................127
11-7 Insurance Claim Wrongfully Delayed or Denied........................................128
11-8 Insurance Policy Rescission........................................................................128
11-9 Insurance Policy Terminated Without Notice to Insured...........................129
11-10 Insurer Wrongfully Disclosing Confidential Information...........................129
11-11 Life or Health Insurance Obtained by Fraud.............................................130
11-12 New York State Prompt Pay Law...............................................................130
11-13 Subrogation.................................................................................................130
Chapter 12
Judicial Causes of Action
12-1 Abuse of Process.........................................................................................133
12-2 Capias Ad Respondendum..........................................................................133
12-3 Concealment or Destruction of Evidence (Spoliation of Evidence).............134
12-4 Concert of Action........................................................................................134
12-5 Contempt....................................................................................................135
12-6 Court Sanctions for Delay..........................................................................135
12-7 Malicious Abuse of Legal Process (Malicious Prosecution)......................136
12-8 Notary Public Officer Liable for Negligent Acknowledgement..................136
Chapter 13Real Property Causes of Action
13-1 Land Related Causes of Action...................................................................139
13-1:1 Abnormal Dangers on Land..............................................139
13-1:2 Adverse Possession of Property.........................................140
13-1:3 Broker’s Liability For Injury at Open House.....................140
13-1:4 Buyer In Breach Liable for Real Estate Broker’s Commission.....141
13-1:5 Buyer Recovering Costs Due to Title Defect......................141
13-1:6 Co-tenant’s Share of Profits and Expenses........................141
13-1:7 Covenant in Deed Violated................................................141
13-1:8 Customer Injured off Leased Premises..............................142
13-1:9 Easement After Property Divided.....................................142
13-1:10 Easement by Implication...................................................142
13-1:11 Easement by Necessity......................................................143
13-1:12 Easement by Prescription..................................................143
13-1:13 Ejectment (Ejectment for Wrongful Possession of Claim On Land).. 143
13-1:14 Injury Off Owner’s Land...................................................144
13-1:15 Injury on Owner’s Land....................................................144
13-1:16 Landowner Excluding Patron for Discriminatory Reasons.........144
13-1:17 Landowner’s Servant or Contractor Causing Injury..........................145
13-1:18 Private Nuisance...............................................................145
13-1:19 Public Nuisance ...............................................................145
13-1:20 Real Estate Broker’s Commission Due After Termination........146
13-1:21 Real Property Defect Concealed by Seller.........................146
13-1:22 Slander of Title.................................................................146
13-1:23 Warranty of Habitability by Home Seller..........................147
13-1:24 Waste................................................................................147
13-2 Landlord-Tenant Causes of Action.............................................................147
13-2:1 Constructive Eviction of Tenant.........................................147
13-2:2 Eviction for Illegal Occupancy..........................................148
13-2:3 Landlord Failing to Protect Tenant From Crime......................148
13-2:4 Landlord’s Retaliatory Eviction of Tenant.........................148
13-2:5 Rent Implied by Tenant’s Occupation................................149
13-2:6 Security Deposit Not Returned To Tenant.........................149
13-2:7 Subtenant Liable to Landlord for Rent..............................150
13-2:8 Tenant Equitable Relief For Renewal Options...................150
13-2:9 Tenant Unlawfully Evicted................................................150
13-2:10 Warranty of Habitability..................................................151
13-2:11 Yellowstone Injunctions.....................................................152
Chapter 14
Statutory Causes of Action
14-1 Construction or Mechanics Lien Law.........................................................153
14-2 Consumer Fraud.........................................................................................154
14-3 Dram-Shop Act..........................................................................................154
14-4 Emergency Aid Not Given or Not Properly Given (Good Samaritan Law).......155
14-5 Fair Credit Reporting Act...........................................................................155
14-6 Martin Act Claims......................................................................................156
14-7 New York Arts And Cultural Affairs Law..................................................156
14-8 New York Antitrust Statute – Donnelly Act...............................................157
14-9 New York City Snow And Ice Claims.........................................................157
14-10 New York Equal Access To Justice Act......................................................158
14-11 New York Franchise Law............................................................................158
14-12 New York Labor Law § 240........................................................................159
14-13 Physician Violating Patient Confidentiality...............................................160
14-14 Social Host Liability...................................................................................160
14-15 Son of Sam Law..........................................................................................160
14-16 Theft of Personal Identifying Information/Identity Theft..........................161
14-17 Trademark and Trade Dress Dilution.........................................................161
14-18 Trademark and Trade Dress Infringement.................................................162
14-19 Voluntary Rescuer Injured by Negligence of Other (Rescue Doctrine)......162
Chapter 15
Tort Causes of Action
15-1 Business Torts.............................................................................................163
15-1:1 Accountant Malpractice....................................................163
15-1:2 Business Intentionally Interfered with by Outsider............164
15-1:3 Computer Malpractice......................................................164
15-1:4 Unfair Competition...........................................................164
15-1:5 Professional or Tradesperson Malpractice.........................165
15-1:6 Usury................................................................................165
15-2 Defamation Torts........................................................................................166
15-2:1 Defamatory Injury to Reputation......................................166
15-2:2 Injurious Falsehood...........................................................166
15-2:3 Libel and Slander..............................................................166
15-2:3.1 Libel................................................................167
15-2:3.2 Slander............................................................167
15-2:4 Product Disparagement.....................................................167
15-2:5 Negligent Misrepresentation Causing Harm.....................168
15-2:6 Right of Publicity..............................................................169
15-2:7 Words Negligently Spoken................................................169
15-3 Fraud Torts.................................................................................................170
15-3:1 Conversion........................................................................170
15-3:2 Deceit...............................................................................171
15-3:3 Fraud and Deceit...............................................................171
15-4 Intellectual Property Torts.........................................................................172
15-4:1 Artist’s Common Law Copyright Violated.........................172
15-4:2 Idea Misappropriation.......................................................172
15-4:2.1 Property Claims ……………………………………………172
15-4:2.2 Contract Claims…………………………………………………….173
15-4:3 Trade Secret Disclosed or Used Wrongfully......................173
15-4:4 Trafficking Counterfeit Trade or Service Marks...............173
15-5 Motor Vehicle/Boat Torts...........................................................................174
15-5:1 Automobile Damaged at Parking Facility..........................174
15-5:2 Negligent Entrustment......................................................174
15-6 Personal Injury Torts..................................................................................175
15-6:1 Animal Attack Cause of Action.........................................175
15-6:2 Assault..............................................................................176
15-6:3 Battery..............................................................................176
15-6:4 Dental Malpractice...........................................................176
15-6:5 Emotional Distress (Intentionally Inflicted)......................177
15-6:6 Emotional Distress (Negligently Inflicted)........................178
15-6:7 Exposing Another to Disease or Toxic Substances Negligently.........178
15-6:8 Failure to Warn and Protect from a Violent Patient.............179
15-6:9 False Arrest and Imprisonment.........................................179
15-6:10 Future Earning Capacity Damaged by Tort.......................180
15-6:11 Future Injury from Present Tortious Personal Injury ........180
15-6:12 Future Medical Expenses Resulting from Tort.......................180
15-6:13 Intentional or Malicious Harm to Another (Prima Facie Tort).......181
15-6:14 Loss of Consortium...........................................................181
15-6:15 Lost Capacity in Living Resulting from Tort.....................181
15-6:16 Malpractice (or Malfeasance)...........................................182
15-6:17 Medical Malpractice.........................................................182
15-6:18 Medical Provider Liability To Third Parties.....................183
15-6:19 Negligence........................................................................183
15-6:20 Negligently Caused Economic Loss...................................184
15-6:21 Right of Sepulcher.............................................................184
15-6:22 Survivorship......................................................................185
15-6:23 Wrongful Birth..................................................................185
15-6:24 Wrongful Death................................................................185
15-6:25 Wrongful Life...................................................................186
15-7 Personal Property Torts.............................................................................186
15-7:1 Cruelty to Animals............................................................186
15-7:2 Hotel Liability for Personalty Loss...................................187
15-7:3 Lost Property to Be Returned to True Owner....................187
15-7:4 Property Disparagement...................................................187
15-7:5 Property Tortiously Damaged...........................................188
15-7:6 Recovery of a Chattel (Replevin).......................................188
15-7:7 Repossessing/Reclamation of Goods.................................188
15-7:8 Trespass............................................................................189
15-7:9 Trespass on Land..............................................................189
15-7:10 TreSpass to Personal Property/Chattel.............................189
15-7:11 Trover...............................................................................190
15-8 Status Torts.................................................................................................190
15-8:1 Administrative Negligence.................................................190
15-8:2 Aiding and Abetting the Commission of Tort.....................190
15-8:3 Alternative Liability..........................................................191
15-8:4 Bystander Emotional Distress...........................................191
15-8:5 Car Renter Liable for Injury..............................................192
15-8:6 Common Carrier Liability.................................................193
15-8:7 Conspiracy........................................................................193
15-8:8 Conspiracy to Commit a Tort............................................194
15-8:9 Indivisible Harm Caused by Separate Tortfeasors...............194
15-8:10 Municipal Liability...........................................................195
15-8:11 Negligent Advice Causing Damage....................................195
15-8:12 Negligent Entrustment......................................................196
15-8:13 Public Utility Liability......................................................196
15-8:14 Respondeat Superior.........................................................197
15-8:15 Vicarious Liability............................................................197
15-8:16 Witness to Injury Suffering Emotional Distres.................198
Chapter 16
Trust and Estate Causes of Action
16-1 Constructive Trust......................................................................................199
16-2 Curtesy.......................................................................................................199
16-3 Dower..........................................................................................................200
16-4 Elective Share.............................................................................................200
16-5 Expected Gift Maliciously Interfered with by Other..................................201
16-6 Gifts Causa Mortis.....................................................................................201
16-7 Gifts Inter Vivos..........................................................................................201
16-8 Mismanagement of Trust Assets by Trustee...............................................202
16-9 Promise to Make a Will.............................................................................202
16-10 Undue Influence Over Testator or Settlor...................................................202
16-11 Wasting Another’s Property or Inheritance................................................203
Chapter 17
Defenses
17-1 Absolute or Qualified Privilege...................................................................205
17-1:1 Absolute Privilege.............................................................205
17-1:2 Qualified Privilege............................................................205
17-2 Accord and Satisfaction..............................................................................206
17-3 Act of God Doctrine...................................................................................206
17-4 Adverse Possession.....................................................................................207
17-5 Assumption of Risk.....................................................................................208
17-6 Champerty and Maintenance.....................................................................208
17-7 Collateral Estoppel.....................................................................................209
17-8 Economic Interest Defense.........................................................................210
17-9 Emergency Doctrine...................................................................................210
17-10 Emergency Vehicle Driver Defense.............................................................211
17-11 “Empty Chair”...........................................................................................211
17-12 Equitable Estoppel......................................................................................212
17-13 Force Majeure.............................................................................................212
17-14 Frustration of Purpose Doctrine.................................................................212
17-15 General Release..........................................................................................213
17-16 In Pari Delicto............................................................................................213
17-17 Judicial or Litigation Privilege...................................................................214
17-18 Laches.........................................................................................................214
17-19 Lack of Insurance Coverage.......................................................................215
17-20 New York City Pet Law..............................................................................216
17-21 Novation......................................................................................................217
17-22 Res Adjudicata............................................................................................217
17-23 Statute of Limitations.................................................................................218
17-24 Statute of Repose........................................................................................218
17-25 Storm In Progress.......................................................................................219
17-26 Wagoner Rule.............................................................................................219
17-27 Waiver.........................................................................................................220
Index.........................................................................................................................221
Table of Statutes.......................................................................................................325
Table of Cases.........