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Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses

Ernest Badway

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NEW 2015 Edition


The Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses is a single volume annual paperback. It is a quick starting point for virtually any civil case containing New York civil actions, legal principles and defenses. The book compiles, outlines, and indexes theories of recovery under New York law. There is nothing like it available to NY practitioners. 

   



New for 2015! 
- 44 New Cases
- 7 New Causes of Action Including:
        Breach of Contract Lost Profits Damages
        Breach of Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing
        Computer Malpractice
        New York Equal Access to Justice Act
        Right of Publicity
        Tortious Conduct Lost Profit Damages
        Unsurpation of Corporate Opportunity
 

 
For managing partners and litigation departments, this book brings associates up to speed quickly, while reducing training time and expense in preparing briefs and pleadings.

There is also an extensive common word index facilitating a direct review of the potential universe of causes of actions, principles and defenses, and tables of cases and statutes.

When appropriate, the Cause of Action will reference authorities for defense, including statutes of limitation. The Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses, is a quick reference to unfamiliar subjects, a welcome resource for firms without an extensive law library
 
This title is perfect for solo practitioners and small firms. It will save time analyzing client problems and preparing pleadings by pin-pointing the starting point of an action before employing more costly research. This is an inexpensive desk reference for virtually any case that walks in your door!

   

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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New York Law Journal Books
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 0
  • ISBN: 978-1-57625-805-7
  • Pub#/SKU#: NYCOA
  • Pub Date: 05/30/2014
  • Volume(s): 1
  • Frequency: Annually

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  • Ernest Badway

About the Author

 

            Ernest Edward Badway is a litigation partner at Fox Rothschild LLP, where he co-chairs both the Securities and Financial Institutions Compliance and Defense and White Collar Compliance and Defense Groups. His practice areas include securities litigation and regulatory matters, internal investigations, white-collar criminal defense, commercial litigation and corporate law specializing in private placements, initial public offerings and the creation of broker-dealers, investment advisors and hedge funds. He is admitted to practice law in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and the District of Columbia as well as the United States Courts of Appeals for the Second and Third Circuits and the United States District Courts for the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, the Districts of Columbia and New Jersey. He received his J.D. in 1992 from Duke University School of Law, and received a Masters degree in History as well as a Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Economics, magna cum laude with distinction in History, from Boston Universitys Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and College of Liberal Arts.

            Badway, a former United States Securities and Exchange Commission Division of Enforcement attorney, is also an adjunct Assistant Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School, where he teaches a course in securities fraud enforcement. Badway was appointed a FINRA (previously, NYSE and NASD) and NFA arbitrator, and is a member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators as well as a New Jersey State Court Arbitrator and Mediator. He is a member of the American Bar Association; the New York County Lawyers Association, where he serves as its Treasurer and previously as co-chair of the Securities and Exchanges Committee and Chair of the Presidents Task Force on Corporate Responsibility; the New York State Bar Association where he is a delegate to the House of Delegates; and The Association of the Federal Bar of the State of New Jersey.


Chapter 1

Agency or Fiduciary Causes of Action 1

1-1 Agent Breaching Fiduciary Duty to Principal................................................1

1-2 Agent Negligent in Collecting Debt................................................................2

1-3 Agent’s Liability for Principal’s Obligation....................................................2

1-4 Agent’s Negligence Causing Harm to Others.................................................2

1-5 Agent’s Personal Liability on Contract...........................................................3

1-6 Bailments........................................................................................................3

1-7 Caring for Collateral or Security....................................................................4

1-8 Charitable Organization Liable for Wrongdoing............................................5

1-9 Consignee Liability for Damaged Art............................................................5

1-10 C o-Sureties Contributing on Debt Default.....................................................5

1-11 Escrow Agent Improperly Disbursing Funds..................................................6

1-12 Faithless Servant Doctrine..............................................................................6

1-13 Fiduciary Breaching Duty............................................................................11

1-14 Fraudulent Concealment by Fiduciary..........................................................12

1-15 Obligor Aiding Agent Disloyalty to Principal..............................................12

1-16 Warehouseman or Carrier Liability for Goods.............................................13

1-17 Warehouseman or Carrier Lien on Goods.................................................... 14

Chapter 2

Attorney and Legal Services Causes of Action 15

2-1 Attorney Malpractice...................................................................................15

2-2 Attorney Increasing Inadequate Contingency Fee........................................16

2-3 Claim for Attorney’s Fees.............................................................................16

2-4 Legal Fraud..................................................................................................16

2-5 Legal Malpractice in Criminal Cases........................................................... 17

Chapter 3

Banking, Commercial Paper and Creditor Causes of Action 19

3-1 Bank Leaving Funds Transfer Incomplete....................................................19

3-2 Bank Misconduct When Relying on Power of Attorney...............................19

3-3 Bank Mishandling Funds Transfer...............................................................20

3-4 Bankrupt’s Voiding of Preferential Transfer of Property.............................20

3-5 Bank’s Wrongful Dishonor of Negotiable Instrument..................................20

3-6 Bank’s Wrongful Payment of Negotiable Instrument...................................21

3-7 Bounced Check Causing Damage.................................................................21

3-8 Certified or Cashier’s Check Wrongfully Dishonored..................................22

3-9 Checking Account Funds Misappropriated by Fiduciary.............................23

3-10 Collecting Bank Late Objection to Negotiable Instrument..........................23

3-11 Collecting Bank Mishandling Negotiable Instrument..................................24

3-12 Credit Issuer Dishonoring or Repudiating....................................................24

3-13 Debtor Lying to Creditor About Assets........................................................24

3-14 Debtor’s Fraudulent Conveyance..................................................................25

3-15 Electronic Fund Transfer Privacy or Safety Violation..................................25

3-16 Enforcement of Security Interest Delegating Seller’s Performance.............25

3-17 Fraudulent Negotiable Instrument Paid or Taken........................................25

3-18 Lessee’s Default on Lease of Goods.............................................................26

3-19 Lessor’s Breach of Implied Warranty on Goods...........................................26

3-20 Lessor’s Breach of Express Warranty on Goods..........................................27

3-21 Lessor’s Default on Lease of Goods.............................................................28

3-22 Letter of Credit Obligation Breached...........................................................28

3-23 Mistaken Payment on Draft Returned.........................................................29

3-24 Mortgage Contingency Loan Exacting Illegal Commission........................29

3-25 Mortgage Exacting Illegal Points and Prepayments Fees............................30

3-26 Mortgage Holder Breaching Escrow Obligations.........................................30

3-27 Mortgagee Failing to Cancel Redeemed Mortgage......................................31

3-28 Negotiable Instrument..................................................................................32

3-29 Negotiable Instrument Forged or Stolen.......................................................32

3-30 Negotiable Instrument Signed for Accommodation......................................33

3-31 Noncompliance With Secured Transactions Laws........................................33

3-32 Spouse Liable for Other Spouse’s Debt........................................................34

3-33 Registration of Investment Security Transfer Denied...................................34

Chapter 4

Constitutional Causes of Action 37

4-1 Grand Jury Proceedings Unlawfully Disclosed............................................37

4-2 Inverse Condemnation..................................................................................37

4-3 Privacy Invasion............................................................................................38

4-4 State Constitutional Rights Violation...........................................................38

4-5 State Destruction of Private Property..........................................................39

4-6 State Taking Land Requiring Compensation...............................................39

4-7 Taking...........................................................................................................40

4-8 D e Facto Taking...........................................................................................40

4-9 Regulatory Taking........................................................................................41

Chapter 5

Contract or Quasi-Contract Causes of Action 43

5-1 Accounting....................................................................................................43

5-2 Account Stated..............................................................................................43

5-3 Anticipatory Breach of Contract...................................................................44

5-4 Breach of Contract Causing Damage...........................................................44

5-5 Buyer Recovering Specifically Identified Goods...........................................45

5-6 Careless Contractual Work..........................................................................45

5-7 Child’s Right to Rescind Contract................................................................46

5-8 Confusing Language in Written Contract....................................................46

5-9 Constructive Fraud in Contract....................................................................46

5-10 Consumer Contract Containing Unlawful Provision....................................47

5-11 Consumer Credit Billing Error.....................................................................48

5-12 Consumer Goods Leased Under Unconscionable Circumstances.................49

5-13 Consumer Loan Broker Acting Improperly..................................................49

5-14 Contract........................................................................................................50

5-15 Contract Performance Interfered With by Outsider.....................................50

5-16 Contract Rescission......................................................................................51

5-17 Coverage for Causes Extending From Insured Risk.....................................51

5-18 Duress Permitting Contract Rescission........................................................52

5-19 Fraud by Others Outside Contract...............................................................52

5-20 Fraud Permitting Reformation or Rescission...............................................52

5-21 Goods Sold and Delivered.............................................................................53

5-22 Guaranty.......................................................................................................53

5-23 Implied Contract...........................................................................................53

5-24 Insane Party Rescinding Contract................................................................54

5-25 Insolvent Buyer Having Bought Goods.........................................................54

5-26 Insolvent Lessor Having Leased Goods........................................................54

5-27 Insolvent Seller Having Sold Goods.............................................................55

5-28 Intentional Interference With a Contractual Relationship............................55

5-29 Intentional Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage.................56

5-30 Limited Partnership Certificate Containing Falsehood................................56

5-31 Malicious Interference With Contract Rights..............................................57

5-32 Malicious Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage...................57

5-33 Money Had and Received.............................................................................57

5-34 Mutual Mistake in Contract.........................................................................58

5-35 Obligation to Pay Services Sought for Other...............................................58

5-36 Overpayment on Contract Recovered...........................................................58

5-37 Promise Causing Detrimental Reliance........................................................59

5-38 Promissory Estoppel.....................................................................................59

5-39 Quantum Meruit...........................................................................................59

5-40 Quasi-Contract.............................................................................................61

5-41 Recoupment for Contract Breach Harming Outsider...................................61

5-42 Reliance on Another’s Conduct (Estoppel)...................................................61

5-43 Rescission and Cancellation of Written Instruments (Fraud).......................62

5-44 Rescission and Cancellation of Written Instruments (Misrepresentation)...62

5-45 Sale of Goods Breached by Buyer.................................................................62

5-46 Sale of Goods Breached by Seller.................................................................63

5-47 Sale of Personal Property.............................................................................63

5-48 Substantial Performance of Contract Allowing Recovery............................63

5-49 Unconscionability Permitting Contract Rescission......................................64

5-49:1 Substantive Unconscionability.............................................64

5-49:2 Procedural Unconscionability.............................................64

5-50 Unilateral Mistake in Contract....................................................................65

5-51 Unjust Enrichment........................................................................................65

5-52 Warranty on Goods Breached by Seller........................................................66

Chapter 6

Corporate and Partnership Causes of Action 67

6-1 Association and Membership Liability.........................................................67

6-2 Association Membership Wrongfully Interfered With.................................67

6-3 Avoiding the Corporate Liability Shield or Piercing the Corporate Veil......68

6-4 Business Judgment Rule...............................................................................69

6-5 Business Partner Breaching Fiduciary Duty to Co-Partner.........................69

6-6 Corporate Officer Participating in Tort.......................................................69

6-7 Cost of Defending Against Derivative Suit...................................................70

6-8 Director’s Liability to Shareholders..............................................................70

6-9 Improperly Buying Securities During Corporate Takeover..........................71

6-10 Member Liability in Joint Enterprise...........................................................72

6-11 Minority Shareholder Freeze-Out................................................................72

6-12 Partner Breaching Duty to Co-Partner........................................................72

6-13 Partnership Liability for Debts.....................................................................73

6-14 Partnership Liability for Injury....................................................................73

6-15 Principal/Promoter Liability for Post-Incorporation Debt..........................73

6-16 Principal’s/Promoter’s Bad Faith Liability for Real Estate Broker’s Commission.............74

6-17 Redeeming Shares in Company Merger or Sale...........................................74

6-18 Sales Commission Due From Principal........................................................75

6-19 Successor Corporation Liable for Predecessor ............................................75

Chapter 7

Damage Related Causes of Action 77

7-1 Contribution..................................................................................................77

7-2 Indemnification From Person Ordering Tort................................................77

7-3 Interest Awarded on Damages......................................................................78

7-4 Punitive Damages Due From Tortfeasor......................................................78

7-5 Recovery or Contribution From Tortfeasor..................................................79

Chapter 8

Employer-Employee Causes of Action 81

8-1 Competition With Employer or Principal.....................................................81

8-1:1 Claim for Employee Breach of Fiduciary Duty.................... 81

8-1:2 Claim for Misappropriation and Unfair Competition..........82

8-2 Contractual Covenant Not to Compete Violated..........................................82

8-3 Employer Breach of Employee Manual........................................................82

8-4 Employer Improperly Handling Employee Wages........................................83

8-5 Employer Liability for Employee Act...........................................................83

8-6 Employer Retaliation Against Employee......................................................84

8-7 Hostile Work Environment Sexual Harassment..........................................85

8-8 Negligent Hiring...........................................................................................85

8-9 Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment...............................................................86

8-10 Sex Discrimination in Wage Payment..........................................................86

8-11 Work Environment Harassment...................................................................87

8-12 Work, Labor and Services (Quantum Meruit)..............................................88

8-13 Wrongful Discharge in Violation of Company Policy...................................88

Chapter 9

Equitable Causes of Action 89

9-1 Equitable Estoppel........................................................................................89

9-2 Equitable Fraud............................................................................................89

9-3 Equitable Subrogation..................................................................................90

9-4 Estoppel by Deed..........................................................................................90

9-5 Estoppel in Pais............................................................................................90

9-6 Implied Indemnification................................................................................91

9-7 Impounding Property to Pay Debt...............................................................91

9-8 Impress a Trust.............................................................................................92

9-9 Injunctions (Preliminary).............................................................................92

9-10 Reformation of Written Instruments............................................................92

9-11 Restitution Despite Contract Breach............................................................93

9-12 Resulting Trust.............................................................................................93

9-13 Specific Performance....................................................................................94

Chapter 10

Family and Matrimonial Causes of Action 95

10-1 Adoption.......................................................................................................95

10-2 Annulment....................................................................................................95

10-3 Custody and Visitation..................................................................................97

10-3:1 Custody...............................................................................97

10-3:2 Visitation Rights of Sibling.................................................98

10-3:3 Visitation of Grandparents..................................................98

10-3:4 Enforcement of Visitation....................................................99

10-3:5 Enforcement of Visitation—Temporary Order.................. 100

10-4 Divorce........................................................................................................100

10-4:1 No-Fault Divorce.............................................................. 100

10-4:2 Fault Divorce..................................................................... 101

10-4:3 Abandonment.................................................................... 101

10-4:4 Adultery............................................................................ 102

10-4:5 Cruel and Inhuman Treatment........................................... 103

10-4:6 Imprisonment.................................................................... 104

10-4:7 Living Apart Pursuant to Separation Agreement............... 104

10-4:8 Living Apart Pursuant to Separation Decree..................... 105

10-5 Guardianship..............................................................................................106

10-5:1 Guardianship of Minor ..................................................... 106

10-5:2 Guardianship of Mentally Retarded/Developmentally Disabled................................................. 109

10-5:3 Guardianship of Adult....................................................... 109

10-5:4 Waste of Assets................................................................. 111

10-6 Separation From Bed and Board................................................................ 111

10-7 Paternity.....................................................................................................112

Chapter 11

Insurance Causes of Action 115

11-1 Insurance Policy......................................................................................... 115

11-2 Insurance Broker Malpractice.................................................................... 115

11-3 Insurance Carrier Defrauded or Exploited................................................. 116

11-4 Insurance Carrier Supplying Defense of Suit............................................. 116

11-5 Insurance Carrier’s Bad Faith..................................................................... 116

11-6 Insurance Claim Wrongfully Delayed or Denied........................................ 117

11-7 Insurance Policy Rescission........................................................................ 117

11-8 Insurance Policy Terminated Without Notice to Insured........................... 118

11-9 Insurer Wrongfully Disclosing Confidential Information........................... 118

11-10 Life or Health Insurance Obtained By Fraud.............................................119

11-11 New York State Prompt Pay Law............................................................... 119

11-12 Subrogation.................................................................................................119

Chapter 12

Judicial Causes of Action 121

12-1 Abuse of Process.........................................................................................121

12-2 Capias Ad Respondendum..........................................................................121

12-3 Concealment or Destruction of Evidence (Spoliation of Evidence).............122

12-4 Concert of Action........................................................................................122

12-5 Contempt....................................................................................................123

12-6 Court Sanctions for Delay..........................................................................123

12-7 Malicious Abuse of Legal Process (Malicious Prosecution)......................123

12-8 Notary Public Officer Liable for Negligent Acknowledgement..................124

Chapter 13

Real Property Causes of Action 127

13-1 Land Related Causes of Action...................................................................127

13-1:1 Abnormal Dangers on Land.............................................. 127

13-1:2 Adverse Possession of Property......................................... 128

13-1:3 Broker’s Liability for Injury at Open House...................... 128

13-1:4 Buyer in Breach Liable for Real Estate Broker’s Commission............... 128

13-1:5 Buyer Recovering Costs Due to Title Defect...................... 129

13-1:6 Co-tenant’s Share of Profits and Expenses........................ 129

13-1:7 Covenant in Deed Violated................................................ 129

13-1:8 Customer Injured off Leased Premises.............................. 130

13-1:9 Easement After Property Divided..................................... 130

13-1:10 Easement by Implication................................................... 130

13-1:11 Easement by Necessity...................................................... 131

13-1:12 Easement by Prescription.................................................. 131

13-1:13 Ejectment (Ejectment for Wrongful Possession of Claim on Land)............... 131

13-1:14 Injury Off Owner’s Land................................................... 131

13-1:15 Injury on Owner’s Land.................................................... 132

13-1:16 Landowner Excluding Patron for Discriminatory Reasons.................................................... 132

13-1:17 Landowner’s Servant or Contractor Causing Injury........... 132

13-1:18 Private Nuisance............................................................... 133

13-1:19 Public Nuisance ............................................................... 133

13-1:20 Real Estate Broker’s Commission Due After Termination.................... 134

13-1:21 Real Property Defect Concealed by Seller......................... 134

13-1:22 Slander of Title................................................................. 134

13-1:23 Warranty of Habitability by Home Seller.......................... 135

13-1:24 Waste................................................................................ 135

13-2 Landlord-Tenant Causes of Action.............................................................135

13-2:1 Constructive Eviction of Tenant......................................... 135

13-2:2 Eviction for Illegal Occupancy.......................................... 136

13-2:3 Landlord Failing to Protect Tenant From Crime............... 136

13-2:4 Landlord’s Retaliatory Eviction of Tenant......................... 136

13-2:5 Rent Implied by Tenant’s Occupation................................ 137

13-2:6 Security Deposit Not Returned to Tenant.......................... 137

13-2:7 Subtenant Liable to Landlord for Rent.............................. 137

13-2:8 Tenant Unlawfully Evicted................................................ 137

13-2:9 Warranty of Habitability.................................................. 138

Chapter 14

Statutory Causes of Action 141

14-1 Construction or Mechanics Lien Law......................................................... 141

14-2 Consumer Fraud......................................................................................... 141

14-3 Dram-Shop Act.......................................................................................... 142

14-4 Emergency Aid Not Given or Not Properly Given (Good Samaritan Law)................ 143

14-5 Fair Credit Reporting Act........................................................................... 143

14-6 Martin Act Claims......................................................................................144

14-7 New York City Snow and Ice Claims..........................................................144

14-8 Physician Violating Patient Confidentiality............................................... 145

14-9 Social Host Liability................................................................................... 145

14-10 Son of Sam Law.......................................................................................... 145

14-11 Theft of Personal Identifying Information/Identity Theft.......................... 146

14-12 Trademark and Trade Dress Dilution......................................................... 146

14-13 Trademark and Trade Dress Infringement................................................. 146

14-14 Voluntary Rescuer Injured by Negligence of Other (Rescue Doctrine)...... 147

Chapter 15

Tort Causes of Action 149

15-1 Business Torts............................................................................................. 149

15-1:1 Accountant Malpractice.................................................... 149

15-1:2 Business Intentionally Interfered With by Outsider........... 150

15-1:3 Unfair Competition........................................................... 150

15-1:4 Professional or Tradesperson Malpractice........................ 150

15-1:5 Usury................................................................................ 151

15-2 Defamation Torts........................................................................................151

15-2:1 Defamatory Injury to Reputation...................................... 151

15-2:2 Injurious Falsehood........................................................... 152

15-2:3 Libel and Slander.............................................................. 152

15-2:3.1 Libel ……………………………………………………………….152

15-2:3.2 Slander …………………………………………………………….153

15-2:4 Product Disparagement..................................................... 153

15-2:5 Negligent Misrepresentation Causing Harm..................... 154

15-2:6 Words Negligently Spoken................................................ 155

15-3 Fraud Torts.................................................................................................155

15-3:1 Conversion........................................................................ 155

15-3:2 Deceit............................................................................... 156

15-3:3 Fraud and Deceit............................................................... 156

15-4 Intellectual Property Torts.........................................................................157

15-4:1 Artist’s Common Law Copyright Violated......................... 157

15-4:2 Idea Misappropriation....................................................... 157

15-4:2.1 Property Claims …………………………………………………157

15-4:2.2 Contract Claims ………………………………………………….157

15-4:3 Trade Secret Disclosed or Used Wrongfully...................... 158

15-4:4 Trafficking Counterfeit Trade or Service Marks................. 158

15-5 Motor Vehicle/Boat Torts............................................159

15-5:1 Automobile Damaged at Parking Facility.......................... 159

15-5:2 Negligent Entrustment...................................................... 159

15-6 Personal Injury Torts..................................................................................160

15-6:1 Animal Attack Cause of Action......................................... 160

15-6:2 Assault.............................................................................. 160

15-6:3 Battery.............................................................................. 161

15-6:4 Dental Malpractice........................................................... 161

15-6:5 Emotional Distress (Intentionally Inflicted)...................... 162

15-6:6 Emotional Distress (Negligently Inflicted)........................ 162

15-6:7 Exposing Another to Disease or Toxic Substances Negligently.............................. 163

15-6:8 Failure to Warn and Protect From a Violent Patient................. 163

15-6:9 False Arrest and Imprisonment......................................... 164

15-6:10 Future Earning Capacity Damaged by Tort....................... 164

15-6:11 Future Injury From Present Tortious Personal Injury ....... 165

15-6:12 Future Medical Expenses Resulting From Tort................. 165

15-6:13 Intentional Or Malicious Harm to Another (Prima Facie Tort)......165

15-6:14 Loss of Consortium........................................................... 166

15-6:15 Lost Capacity in Living Resulting From Tort.................... 166

15-6:16 Malpractice (or Malfeasance)........................................... 166

15-6:17 Medical Malpractice......................................................... 167

15-6:18 Negligence........................................................................ 167

15-6:19 Negligently Caused Economic Loss................................... 168

15-6:20 Survivorship...................................................................... 168

15-6:21 Wrongful Birth.................................................................. 168

15-6:22 Wrongful Death................................................................ 169

15-6:23 Wrongful Life................................................................... 169

15-7 Personal Property Torts............................................................................. 170

15-7:1 Cruelty to Animals............................................................ 170

15-7:2 Hotel Liability for Personalty Loss................................... 170

15-7:3 Lost Property to Be Returned to True Owner.................... 170

15-7:4 Property Disparagement................................................... 171

15-7:5 Property Tortiously Damaged........................................... 171

15-7:6 Recovery of a Chattel (Replevin)....................................... 171

15-7:7 Repossessing/Reclamation of Goods................................. 172

15-7:8 Trespass............................................................................ 172

15-7:9 Trespass on Land.............................................................. 172

15-7:10 Trespass to Personal Property/Chattel.............................. 173

15-7:11 Trover............................................................................... 173

15-8 Status Torts................................................................................................. 174

15-8:1 Administrative Negligence................................................. 174

15-8:2 Aiding and Abetting the Commission of Tort..................... 174

15-8:3 Alternative Liability.......................................................... 174

15-8:4 Bystander Emotional Distress........................................... 175

15-8:5 Car Renter Liable for Injury.............................................. 176

15-8:6 Common Carrier Liability................................................. 176

15-8:7 Conspiracy........................................................................ 177

15-8:8 Conspiracy to Commit a Tort............................................ 177

15-8:9 Indivisible Harm Caused by Separate Tortfeasors........... 178

15-8:10 Municipal Liability........................................................... 178

15-8:11 Negligent Advice Causing Damage.................................... 179

15-8:12 Negligent Entrustment...................................................... 179

15-8:13 Respondeat Superior......................................................... 180

15-8:14 Vicarious Liability............................................................ 180

15-8:15 Witness to Injury Suffering Emotional Distress................ 181

Chapter 16

Trust and Estate Causes of Action 183

16-1 Constructive Trust......................................................................................183

16-2 Curtesy.......................................................................................................183

16-3 Dower..........................................................................................................184

16-4 Elective Share.............................................................................................184

16-5 Expected Gift Maliciously Interfered With by Other.................................185

16-6 Gifts Causa Mortis.....................................................................................185

16-7 Gifts Inter Vivos..........................................................................................185

16-8 Mismanagement of Trust Assets by Trustee...............................................186

16-9 Promise to Make a Will.............................................................................186

16-10 Undue Influence Over Testator or Settlor...................................................186

16-11 Wasting Another’s Property or Inheritance................................................187

Chapter 17

Defenses 189

17-1 Absolute or Qualified Privilege...................................................................189

17-1:1 Absolute Privilege............................................................. 189

17-1:2 Qualified Privilege............................................................ 189

17-2 Accord and Satisfaction..............................................................................190

17-3 Adverse Possession.....................................................................................190

17-4 Assumption of Risk.....................................................................................191

17-5 Champerty and Maintenance.....................................................................192

17-6 Collateral Estoppel.....................................................................................192

17-7 Emergency Vehicle Driver Defense.............................................................193

17-8 Equitable Estoppel......................................................................................193

17-9 Frustration of Purpose Doctrine.................................................................194

17-10 General Release..........................................................................................194

17-11 In Pari Delicto............................................................................................194

17-12 Laches.........................................................................................................195

17-13 Lack of Insurance Coverage.......................................................................196

17-14 New York City Pet Law..............................................................................197

17-15 Novation......................................................................................................198

17-16 Res Adjudicata............................................................................................198

17-17 Statute of Limitations.................................................................................199

17-18 Statute of Repose........................................................................................199

17-19 Wagoner Rule.............................................................................................200

17-20 Waiver.........................................................................................................200

Index .................................................................................................................203

Table of Statutes.......................................................................................................305

Table of Cases........................................................................................................... 311