Books


New York Real Property Law

Standing Order with Automatic Update Service

Print

$160.00
Add To Cart

New York Real Property Law includes the full text of the New York Multiple Dwelling Law (MDL), Real Property Law (RPL), and Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law (RPAPL) and digests of hundreds of cases from the New York Law Journal. The book also contains relevant real property practice articles.



Subscriptions to books are auto-renewed to avoid disruptions in service. Print editions must be returned within 30 days in resalable condition for refund. For downloadable eBook products, a refund will be granted if the eBook has not been downloaded. For further information please call 1-800-756-8993 or email regionaltitles@alm.com.
CLICK HERE TO COMPLETE THE SERIES

Satisfaction Guarantee: You will always have a full 30 days from receipt in which to review any book. If you don’t want the book, simply return it in resalable condition within 30 days of receipt and write “cancel” on the invoice. If you paid by credit or debit card you will receive a full refund of the purchase price (excluding return shipping & handling). eBook returns are only available if the eBook has not yet been downloaded and updates made available during any subscription term are not refundable.
For more information about online access and our downloadable EPUB format see our FAQ.

  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New York Law Journal Books
  • Product Type: Books
  • Edition: 0
  • Page Count: 1189
  • ISBN: 978-1-57625-941-2
  • Pub#/SKU#: NREAL16
  • Pub Date: 05/28/2015
  • Volume(s): 1

Part I

Multiple Dwelling Law

 

Article 1

INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS; DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

§ 1. Short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

§ 2. Legislative finding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

§ 3. Application to cities, towns and villages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

§ 4. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

 

Article 2

MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATION PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

§ 8. General application of chapter to dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

§ 9. Buildings converted or altered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

§ 10. Time for compliance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

§ 11. Dwellings damaged or moved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

§ 12. Prohibited uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

§ 13. Application of chapter to existing dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

§ 14. Application of chapter to uncompleted dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

 

Article 3

MULTIPLE DWELLINGS—GENERAL PROVISIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

§ 25. Application of article three.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Title 1: Light and Air

§ 26. Height, bulk, open spaces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

§ 28. Two or more buildings on same lot.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

§ 29. Painting of courts and shafts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

§ 30. Lighting and ventilation of rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

§ 31. Size of rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

§ 32. Alcoves.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

§ 33. Cooking spaces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

§ 34. Rooms in basements and cellars.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

§ 35. Entrance doors and lights.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

§ 36. Windows and skylights for public halls and stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

§ 37. Artificial hall lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Title 2: Fire Protection and Safety

§ 50. Entrance halls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

§ 50-a. Entrances: doors, locks and intercommunication systems.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

§ 50-c. Rights of tenants to operate and maintain a lobby attendant service.. . . . . . . . 33

§ 51. Shafts, elevators and dumbwaiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

§ 51-a. Peepholes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

§ 51-b. Mirrors in connection with self-service elevators.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

§ 51-c. Rights of tenants to install and maintain locks in certain entrance doors.. . . . 35

§ 52. Stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

§ 53. Fire-escapes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

§ 54. Cellar entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

§ 55. Wainscoting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

§ 56. Frame buildings and extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

§ 57. Bells; mail receptacles.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

§ 58. Incombustible materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

§ 59. Bakeries and fat boiling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

§ 60. Motor vehicle storage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

§ 61. Business uses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

§ 62. Parapets, guard railings and wires.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

§ 63. Sub-curb uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

§ 64. Lighting; gas meters; gas and oil appliances.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

§ 65. Boiler rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

§ 66. Lodging houses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

§ 67. Hotels and certain other class A and class B dwellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

§ 68. Smoke detecting devices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Title 3: Sanitation and health

§ 75. Water supply.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

§ 76. Water-closet and bath accommodations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

§ 77. Plumbing and drainage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

§ 78. Repairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

§ 79. Heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

§ 80. Cleanliness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

§ 81. Receptacles for waste matter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

§ 82. Privacy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

§ 83. Janitor or housekeeper.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

§ 84. Construction standards for the control of noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

 

Article 4

FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

§ 100. Application of article four.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Title 1: Fire Protection

§ 101. Requirements for fireproof construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

§ 102. Stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

§ 103. Egress from apartments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

§ 104. Bulkheads.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

§ 105. Separation and ventilation of stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

§ 106. Cellar and basement stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

§ 107. Public halls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

§ 108. Partitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Title 2: Sanitation

§ 115. Interior water-closets and bathrooms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

§ 116. Water-closets in certain class B multiple dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

§ 117. Employees’ water-closets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

 

Article 5

NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

§ 140. Application of article five.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Title 1: Fire Protection

§ 141. Height.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

§ 142. Sub-curb uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

§ 143. Construction of first floor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

§ 144. Egress from dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

§ 145. Fire-escapes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

§ 146. Egress from apartments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

§ 147. Bulkheads and scuttles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

§ 148. Public stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

§ 149. Public halls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

§ 150. Cellar and basement stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

§ 151. Spaces under stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

§ 152. Fire-stopping.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Title 2: Sanitation

§ 160. Water-closets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

 

Article 5-A

GARDEN-TYPE MAISONETTE DWELLING PROJECTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

§ 161. Application of article five-A.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

§ 162. Single ownership.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

§ 163. Construction and arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Article 6

CONVERTED DWELLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

§ 170. Application of article six and other provisions to converted dwellings. . . . . . . 82

§ 170-a. (Enacted without section heading).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

§ 171. Alterations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Title 1: Light and Air

§ 172. Yards and courts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

§ 173. Windows in rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

§ 174. Size of rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

§ 175. Alcoves.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

§ 176. Cooking spaces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

§ 177. Rooms in basements and cellars.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

§ 178. Lighting and ventilation of stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

§ 179. Privacy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Title 2: Fire Protection

§ 185. Cellar ceilings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

§ 186. Extension roofs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

§ 187. Egress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

§ 188. Bulkheads and scuttles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

§ 189. Stair and public hall construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

§ 190. Cellar stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

§ 191. Wainscoting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

§ 192. Cellar entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

§ 193. Frame buildings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

§ 194. Sprinkler heads in rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Title 3: Sanitation

§ 200. Water-closets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

 

Article 7

TENEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

§ 210. Application of article seven and other provisions to tenements.. . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Title 1: Light and Air

§ 211. Height and bulk.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

§ 212. Yards and courts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

§ 213. Lighting and ventilation of rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

§ 214. Size of rooms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

§ 215. Alcoves.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

§ 216. Rooms in basements and cellars.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

§ 217. Lighting and ventilation of public halls and stairs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

§ 218. Alterations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Title 2: Fire Protection

§ 230. Chimneys and fireplaces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

§ 231. Egress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

§ 232. Fire-escapes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

§ 233. Bulkheads and scuttles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

§ 234. Stairs and public halls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

§ 235. Stairs in non-fireproof tenements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

§ 236. Stairs in fireproof tenements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

§ 237. Stair construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

§ 238. Stair and entrance halls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

§ 239. Tower fire-escapes and supplemental stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

§ 240. First tier of beams.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

§ 241. Partitions; fire-stopping.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

§ 242. Cellar and basement stairs in non-fireproof tenements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

§ 243. Cellar and basement stairs in fireproof tenements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

§ 244. Spaces under stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

§ 245. Cellar entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Title 2-A: Single Room Occupancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

§ 248. Single room occupancy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Title 3: Sanitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

§ 250. Water-closets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

§ 251. Vent flues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

§ 252. Privacy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

 

Article 7-A

TEMPORARY PROVISIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

§ 260. Recovery of rent for certain non-complying premises restricted

during emergency period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

§ 261. Recovery of possession of certain non-complying premises restricted

during emergency period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

§ 262. Alteration of uncompleted buildings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

§ 264. Conversion of certain dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

 

Article 7-B

JOINT LIVING-WORK QUARTERS FOR ARTISTS, OR GENERAL

RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCY OF LOFT, COMMERCIAL OR

MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

§ 275. Legislative findings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

§ 276. Definition of an artist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

§ 277. Occupancy permitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

§ 278. Application of other provisions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

 

Article 7-C

LEGALIZATION OF INTERIM MULTIPLE DWELLINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

§ 280. Legislative findings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

§ 281. Definition of “interim multiple dwelling”.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

§ 282. Establishment of special loft unit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

§ 283. Occupancy permitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

§ 284. Owner obligations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

§ 285. Owner protection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

§ 286. Tenant protection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

§ 287. Alternative compliance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

 

Article 8

REQUIREMENTS AND REMEDIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

§ 300. Permits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

§ 301. Certificate of compliance or occupancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

§ 302. Unlawful occupation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

§ 302-a. Abatement of rent in the case of serious violations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

§ 302-b. Removal of violations by mortgagees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

§ 302-c. Right of tenant to offset payments for heat failure; certain cases.. . . . . . . . 142

§ 303. Enforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

§ 304. Penalties for violations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

§ 305. Violation of local laws and regulations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

§ 306. Judicial procedure and orders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

§ 307. Liens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

§ 308. Notice of pendency of action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

§ 309. Repairs, vacation and demolition of buildings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

§ 309-a. Multiple dwelling; apartment prohibitions for certain employees.. . . . . . . . 156

§ 310. Board of appeals.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

 

Article 9

REGISTRY OF NAMES AND SERVICE OF PAPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

§ 325. Registry of owner, agent and lessee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

§ 326. Service of notices, orders and summonses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

§ 327. Indexing names; fees for searches.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

§ 328. Central Violations Bureau.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

§ 329. Certificate of inspection visits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

 

Article 10

PROSTITUTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

§ 351. Lien.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

§ 352. Recovery of premises.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

§ 353. Permission of owner or lessee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

§ 354. Rules of evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

§ 355. Title of action or proceeding and parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

§ 356. Jurisdiction and procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

§ 357. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

§ 358. Sale of premises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

§ 359. Receivership.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

§ 360. Cancellation of notice of pendency of action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

 

Article 11

LAWS REPEALED; SAVING CLAUSES; EFFECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

§ 365. Laws repealed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

§ 366. Saving clauses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

§ 367. Effect of invalidity in part.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

 

 

Part II

Real Property law

Article 1

SHORT TITLE; DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

§ 1. Short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

§ 2. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

 

Article 2

TENURE OF REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

§ 10. Capacity to hold real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

§ 11. Capacity to transfer real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

§ 15. Title through alien.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

§ 16. Liabilities of alien holders of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

§ 17. Heirs of patriotic Indian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

§ 18. Mines in Saint Lawrence county.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

 

Article 4

USES AND TRUSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

§ 119. Purchase by mortgage trustee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

§ 120. Operation and sale by mortgage trustee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

§ 120-a. Liquidation of mortgage by trustee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

§ 121. Reorganization of property covered by trust mortgage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

§ 122. Procedure of reorganization and expenses in connection therewith.. . . . . . . . 176

§ 122-a. Modification of trust mortgages given in prior re-organizations.. . . . . . . . . 177

§ 123. Preserving existing rights.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

 

Article 4-A

TRUST INDENTURES AND INTERESTS THEREIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

§ 124. Purpose and application of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

§ 125. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

§ 126. Trust indentures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

§ 127. Restrictions on trustees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

§ 128. Minimum bid of trustee at sale on foreclosure to be fixed by court.. . . . . . . . 181

§ 129. No deposit agreement shall be valid or binding which does not set forth

the following provisions for the protection of the bondholders:. . . . . . . . 182

§ 130-a. Restrictions on committees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

§ 130-b. Managing agents and management companies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

§ 130-c. Voting trustees and voting trust agreements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

§ 130-d. Fees and allowances.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

§ 130-e. Removal of trustees, committees or depositaries.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

§ 130-f. Actions for accounting by minority groups; expenses thereof.. . . . . . . . . . . 183

§ 130-g. Violations and penalties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

§ 130-h. Construction of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

§ 130-i. Separability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

§ 130-j. Right to appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

§ 130-k. Exemptions from restrictions on trustees and trust indentures.. . . . . . . . . . 184

 

Article 6

DOWER AND CURTESY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

§ 189. Estate of curtesy abolished.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

§ 190. Dower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

§ 190-b. Lands reacquired by the husband.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

§ 191. Dower in lands exchanged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 192. Dower in lands mortgaged before marriage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 193. Dower in lands mortgaged for purchase-money.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 194. Surplus proceeds of sale under purchase-money mortgages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 195. Widow of mortgagee not endowed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 196. When dower barred by misconduct.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 196-a. When dower barred by dissolution of marriage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 197. When dower barred by jointure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

§ 198. When dower barred by pecuniary provisions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

§ 199. When widow to elect between jointure and dower.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

§ 200. Election between devise and dower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

§ 201. When deemed to have elected.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

§ 202. When provision in lieu of dower is forfeited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

§ 203. Effect of acts of husband.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

§ 204. Widow’s quarantine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

§ 205. Widow may bequeath a crop.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

§ 206. Divorced woman may release dower.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

§ 207. Married woman may release dower by attorney.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

 

Article 7

Landlord and Tenant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

§ 220. Action for use and occupation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

§ 221. Rent due on life leases recoverable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

§ 222. When rent is apportionable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

§ 223. Rights where property or lease is transferred.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

§ 223-a. Remedies of lessee when possession is not delivered.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

§ 223-b. Retaliation by landlord against tenant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

§ 224. Attornment by tenant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

§ 225. Notice of action adverse to possession of tenant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

§ 226. Effect of renewal on sub-lease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

§ 226-a. Effect of new lease on tenant’s right to remove fixtures

or improvements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

§ 226-b. Right to sublease or assign.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

§ 227. When tenant may surrender premises.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

§ 227-a. Termination of residential lease by senior citizens moving

to a residence of a family member or entering certain health

care facilities, adult care facilities or housing projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

§ 227-b. Termination of certain contracts by senior citizens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

§ 227-c. Termination of residential lease by victims of domestic violence.. . . . . . . . 213

§ 228. Termination of tenancies at will or by sufferance, by notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

§ 229. Liability of tenant holding over after giving notice of intention to quit.. . . . . 215

§ 230. Right of tenants to form, join or participate in tenants’ groups. . . . . . . . . . . . 215

§ 231. Lease, when void; liability of landlord where premises are occupied

for unlawful purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

§ 232. Duration of certain agreements in New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

§ 232-a. Notice to terminate monthly tenancy or tenancy from month to month

in the city of New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

§ 232-b. Notification to terminate monthly tenancy or tenancy from month

to month outside the city of New York.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

§ 232-c. Holding over by a tenant after expiration of a term longer than one

month; effect of acceptance of rent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

§ 233. Manufactured home parks; duties, responsibilities.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

§ 233-a. Sale of manufactured home parks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

§ 234. Tenants’ right to recover attorneys’ fees in actions or summary

proceedings arising out of leases of residential property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

§ 235. Willful violations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

§ 235-a. Tenant right to offset payments and entitlement to damages

in certain cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

§ 235-b. Warranty of habitability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

§ 235-c. Unconscionable lease or clause.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

§ 235-d. Harassment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

§ 235-e. Duty of landlord to provide written receipt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

§ 235-f. Unlawful restrictions on occupancy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

§ 236. Assignment of lease of a deceased tenant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

§ 237. Discrimination in leases with respect to bearing of children. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

§ 237-a. Discrimination against children in dwelling houses and manufactured

home parks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

§ 238. Agreements or contracts for privileges to deal with occupants

of tenements, apartment houses or bungalow colonies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

 

Article 7A

Portable Kerosene Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

§ 239. Legislative findings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

§ 239-a. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

§ 239-b. Only approved portable kerosene heaters permitted in structures.. . . . . . . . 263

§ 239-c. Approval by the secretary of state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

§ 239-d. Sale of unapproved portable kerosene heaters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

§ 239-e. Portable kerosene heaters prohibited in multiple dwellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

§ 239-f. Penalties for violation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

§ 239-g. Application of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

 

Article 8

CONVEYANCES AND MORTGAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

§ 240. Definitions and use of terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

§ 240-b. Certain conveyances authorized; effect thereof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

§ 240-c. Joint tenancy severance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

§ 241. Ancient conveyances abolished.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

§ 242. Disclosure prior to the sale of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

§ 243. Grant of fee or freehold.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

§ 244. When grant takes effect.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

§ 245. Estate which passes by grant or devise.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

§ 246. Certain deeds declared grants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

§ 247. Conveyance by tenant for life or years of greater estate than possessed. . . . . 271

§ 248. Effect of conveyance where property is leased.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

§ 249. Covenants in mortgages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

§ 251. Covenants not implied.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

§ 252. Lineal and collateral warranties abolished.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

§ 253. Construction of covenants in grants of freehold interests.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

§ 254. Construction of clauses and covenants in mortgages and bonds or notes.. . . . 273

§ 254-a. Right of election of mortgagee in certain cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

§ 254-b. Limitation on late charges.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

§ 254-c. Right to a copy of real property appraisals and consumer reports

in certain cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

§ 254-d. Fees by mortgagee for direct payment of real property taxes

by mortgagor prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

§ 255. Construction of grant of appurtenances and of all the rights and estate

of grantor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

§ 256. Construction of grant in executor’s or trustee’s deed of appurtenances,

and of the estate of testator and grantor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

§ 257. Covenants bind representatives of grantor and mortgagor and inure

to the benefit of whom.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

§ 258. Short forms of deeds and mortgages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

§ 259-c. Provision in lease of real property for waiver of trial by jury in actions

for personal injury or property damage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

§ 260. Lands adversely held may be conveyed or mortgaged.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

§ 261. Maintenance of telegraph or other electric wires raises no presumption

of grant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

§ 265. Fraudulent intent, question of fact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

§ 265-a. Home equity theft prevention.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

§ 265-b. Distressed property consulting contracts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

§ 266. Rights of purchaser or incumbrancer for valuable consideration

protected.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

§ 267. Conveyances with power to revoke, determine or alter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

§ 268. Disaffirmance of fraudulent act by executor and others.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§ 269. When remainderman may pay interest owed by life tenant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§ 270. Powers of courts of equity not abridged.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§ 271. Construction of covenants in mortgages on leases of real property

and bonds or notes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§ 272. Construction of grant of appurtenances, and all of the rights and estate

of the mortgagor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

§ 273. What form of mortgage on lease of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

§ 274. Transfers and mortgages of interest in decedents’ estates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

§ 274-a. Certificate of principal amount unpaid on mortgages of real property. . . . . 312

§ 275. Certificate of discharge of mortgage required.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

§ 276. Effect of certain easements on the right to invest in mortgages.. . . . . . . . . . . 315

§ 277. Modification and extension of mortgage investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

§ 277-a. Powers of fiduciaries and others holding guaranteed mortgages

or mortgage investments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

§ 278. Exchange of mortgage investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

§ 278-a. Sale or exchange of certain real property or mortgage investments

therein authorized.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

§ 279. Graduated payment mortgage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

§ 280. Reverse mortgage loans for persons sixty years of age or older.. . . . . . . . . . . 319

§ 280-a. Reverse mortgage loans for persons seventy years of age or older.. . . . . . . 322

§ 281. Credit line mortgage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

 

Article 9

RECORDING INSTRUMENTS AFFECTING REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

§ 290. Definitions; effect of article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

§ 291. Recording of conveyances.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

§ 291-a. Recording conveyances of land in towns in Chautauqua county;

duties of county and town clerks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

§ 291-b. Recording conveyances of land in towns in Cattaraugus county;

duties of county and town clerks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

§ 291-c. Recording memoranda of leases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

§ 291-cc. Recording modifications of leases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

§ 291-d. Recording of master forms of mortgage covenants and clauses;

incorporation thereof by reference.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

§ 291-e. Exceptions, reservations and recitals referring to unrecorded

conveyances and contracts for sale of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

§ 291-f. Rights where recorded mortgage restricts landlord’s action in respect

to leases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

§ 291-g. Recording insurance information.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

§ 291-h. Recording of liens by the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

§ 292. By whom conveyance must be acknowledged or proved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

§ 292-a. Conveyances by certain corporations executed and acknowledged

by attorneys in fact entitled to recordation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

§ 293. Recording of conveyances heretofore acknowledged or proved.. . . . . . . . . . . 341

§ 294. Recording executory contracts and powers of attorney.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

§ 294-a. Recording assignments of rent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

§ 294-b. Recording brokers affidavit of entitlement to commission for completed

brokerage services.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

§ 295. Recording of letters patent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

§ 296. Recording copies of instruments which are in secretary of state’s office.. . . . 347

§ 297. Certified copies may be recorded.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

§ 297-a. Recording of certified copies of bankruptcy papers; constructive notice.. . . 347

§ 297-b. Recording of certified copies of judgments affecting real property.. . . . . . . 348

§ 298. Acknowledgments and proofs within the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

§ 299. Acknowledgments and proofs without the state, but within the United

States or any territory, possession, or dependency thereof. . . . . . . . . . . . 348

§ 299-a. Acknowledgment to conform to law of New York or of place where

taken; certificate of conformity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

§ 300. Acknowledgments and proofs by persons in or with the armed forces

of the United States.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

§ 301. Acknowledgments and proofs in foreign countries.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

§ 301-a. Acknowledgment to conform to law of New York or of foreign country;

certificate of conformity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

§ 302. Acknowledgments and proofs by married women.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 303. Requisites of acknowledgments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 304. Proof by subscribing witness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 305. Compelling witnesses to testify.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 306. Certificate of acknowledgment or proof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 307. When certificate to state time and place.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

§ 308. When certificate must be under seal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

§ 309. Acknowledgment by corporation and form of certificate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

§ 309-a. Uniform forms of certificates of acknowledgment or proof within

this state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

§ 309-b. Uniform forms of certificates of acknowledgement or proof without

this state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

§ 310. Authentication of acknowledgments and proofs made within the state.. . . . . 356

§ 311. Authentication of acknowledgments and proofs made without the state.. . . . 356

§ 312. Contents of certificate of authentication.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

§ 313. Notary public.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 313-a. Deputies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 314. Recording of conveyances acknowledged or proved without the state,

when parties and certifying officer are dead.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 314-a. Proof when witnesses are dead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 315. Recording books.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 316. Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 316-a. Indexing and reindexing conveyances, mortgages and other

instruments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

§ 316-b. Inactive hazardous waste disposal site registry index.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

§ 317. Order of recording.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

§ 318. Certificate to be recorded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

§ 319. Time of recording.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

§ 320. Certain deeds deemed mortgages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

§ 321. Recording discharge of mortgage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

§ 321-a. Recording discharge of rent assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

§ 324. Effect of recording assignment of mortgage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 325. Recording of conveyances made by treasurer of Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 326. Revocation to be recorded.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 327. Penalty for using long forms of covenants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 328. Certain acts not affected.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 329. Actions to have certain instruments canceled of record.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 330. Officers guilty of malfeasance liable for damages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

§ 331. Laws and decrees of foreign countries appointing agents and attorneys

and recording of the same.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

§ 332. The record of certain conveyances validated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

§ 332-a. Validation of the record, execution and proof or acknowledgment

of certain other instruments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

§ 332-b. The record of certain other conveyances validated.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

§ 333. When conveyances of real property not to be recorded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

§ 333-a. Same; maps to be filed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

§ 333-b. Recording of maps or plot plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

§ 333-c. Lands in agricultural districts; disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

§ 334. Maps to be filed; penalty for nonfiling.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

§ 334-a. Filing of subdivision maps in Nassau county; penalty for non-filing. . . . . . 377

§ 335. Filing of maps and abandonment of subdivisions in Suffolk county;

penalty for nonfiling.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

§ 335-a. Easements of necessity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

§ 335-b. Recording of solar energy easements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

§ 336. Effect of recording demands or requirements of alien property custodian.. . . 386

 

Article 9-A

SUBDIVIDED LANDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

§ 337. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

§ 337-a. Provisions governing sale or lease of subdivided lands.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388

§ 337-b. Offering statement; contents; prohibitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

§ 337-c. Right to cancel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

§ 338. Inspection power of department of state; unlawful practices; penalties.. . . . . 390

§ 339. Filing fees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

§ 339-a. Rules and regulations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

§ 339-b. Powers of department.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

§ 339-c. Action by department of state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

 

Article 9-B

Condominium Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

§ 339-d. Short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

§ 339-e. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

§ 339-f. Application of article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

§ 339-g. Status of units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

§ 339-h. Ownership of units.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

§ 339-i. Common elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

§ 339-j. Compliance with by-laws and rules and regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

§ 339-k. Certain work prohibited.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

§ 339-l. Liens against common elements; liens against units; liens for labor

performed or materials furnished.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

§ 339-m. Common profits and expenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

§ 339-n. Contents of declaration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

§ 339-o. Contents of deeds and leases of units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

§ 339-p. Copy of floor plans to be filed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

§ 339-q. Filing with board.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

§ 339-r. Blanket mortgages and other blanket liens affecting a unit at time

of first conveyance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

§ 339-s. Recording.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

§ 339-t. Withdrawal from provisions of this article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

§ 339-u. By-laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

§ 339-v. Contents of by-laws.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

§ 339-w. Books of receipts and expenditures; availability for examination. . . . . . . . 412

§ 339-x. Waiver of use of common elements; abandonment of unit; conveyance

to board of managers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

§ 339-y. Separate taxation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

§ 339-z. Lien for common charges; priority; exoneration of grantor and grantee.. . . 416

§ 339-aa. Lien for common charges; duration; foreclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

§ 339-bb. Insurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

§ 339-cc. Repair or reconstruction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

§ 339-dd. Actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

§ 339-ee. Effect of other laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

§ 339-ff. Mortgage investments on units by state agencies, insurers, banking

organizations and fiduciaries; limitation to first mortgages.. . . . . . . . . . . 423

§ 339-gg. Severability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

§ 339-hh. Reservation of power.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

§ 339-ii. Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

§ 339-jj. Borrowing by board of managers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

§ 339-kk. Rents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

 

Article 10

DISCHARGE OF ANCIENT MORTGAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

§ 345. Recording of declaration of intention to preserve certain restrictions

on the use of land.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

 

Article 12

REGISTERING TITLE TO REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

§ 370. Petition to register title to real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

§ 371. Petitions and proceedings to be in supreme court; title part

of special term.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

§ 372. County clerks and registers to be registrars of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

§ 373. Registrar’s bond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

§ 374. Deputy registrars’ powers and duties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

§ 375. Compensation of registrars and deputy registrars, official examiners

of title, and registration clerks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

§ 376. Disposition of fees received by registrar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

§ 377. Official examiners of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

§ 378. What owners may apply; what titles may be registered.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

§ 379. Contents of petition for registration; other papers to be filed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

§ 380. Official examiner’s report of title; other evidences of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

§ 381. Survey, map or plan to be filed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

§ 382. Notice of petition and of pendency of proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

§ 385. Proceedings upon the petition; notice of hearing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

§ 386. Form of notice to parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

§ 388. Guardian ad litem.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

§ 389. Any person interested may appear and defend.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

§ 390. Title in lands vested; clouds thereon removed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

§ 391. Final orders conclusive; to be entered and docketed as a judgment.. . . . . . . . 441

§ 392. Fraud; action to set aside or appeal from the final order or judgment

of registration or to recover the property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

§ 393. Registration of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

§ 394. Certificate of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

§ 395. Title book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

§ 396. Duplicate certificate of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

§ 398. Certificate to include dealings pending registration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

§ 399. Certificate of title as evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

§ 400. Rights of owners of registered property; exceptions; incumbrances

and transfers to be filed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

§ 401. Registered property not affected by prescription or adverse possession.. . . . . 444

§ 402. Fraud; notice only by registration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

§ 403. Memorial to be carried forward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

§ 404. Registered property to remain registered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

§ 404-a. Withdrawal from registration in certain instances.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

§ 405. Registered property subject to same rights and burdens as unregistered

property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

§ 406. Transfers of registered property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

§ 407. Certificate as to part of property remaining after transfer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

§ 409. Filing, entering and indexing papers pursuant to this act;

tickler certificate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

§ 409-a. Entries in other indexes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

§ 410. Notice of filed papers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

§ 411. Addresses of interested parties; notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

§ 412. When a transfer is deemed to be registered.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

§ 413. New certificates of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

§ 414. Loss of duplicate certificate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

§ 415. Mortgages, leases and other liens and charges; may be registered.. . . . . . . . . 450

§ 416. Proceedings to register mortgage, lease or other lien or charge.. . . . . . . . . . . 450

§ 417. Judgments, decrees, attachments and other liens to be noted on

certificate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

§ 418. Assignment of mortgage, lease, or other lien or charge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

§ 419. Release, discharge or surrender of charge or encumbrance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

§ 420. Enforcement of mortgages, charges, liens and encumbrances. . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

§ 421. Powers of attorney to be filed and registered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

§ 422. Reference of doubtful matters to the court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

§ 423. Death of owner of registered property; transfer of property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

§ 423-a. Form for transfer of property upon death of owner of registered

property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

§ 426. Assurance fund.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

§ 427. Compensation from assurance fund.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456

§ 428. Action against assurance fund.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

§ 429. Restrictions on claims against assurance fund.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

§ 430. Penalties for fraudulent acts or false certificates.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

§ 431. Forgery and fraudulent stamping; penalty.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

§ 432. Fees to be charged.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

§ 433. Construction of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

§ 434. Form for official examiner’s report of title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

§ 435. Form for certificate of title. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

§ 436. Termination of title registration procedures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

 

Article 12-A

REAL ESTATE BROKERS AND REAL ESTATE SALESMEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

§ 440. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

§ 440-a. License required for real estate brokers and salesmen.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

§ 440-b. Licenses in Putnam county.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

§ 441. Application for license. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

§ 441-a. License and pocket card.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

§ 441-b. License fees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

§ 441-c. Revocation and suspension of licenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

§ 441-d. Salesman’s license suspended by revocation or suspension

of employer’s license.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

§ 441-e. Denial of license; complaints; notice of hearing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473

§ 441-f. Judicial review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473

§ 442. Splitting commissions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

§ 442-a. Compensation of salesmen; restrictions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

§ 442-b. Discontinuance or change of salesman’s association; report.. . . . . . . . . . . . 474

§ 442-c. Violations by salesmen; broker’s responsibility.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

§ 442-d. Actions for commissions; license prerequisite.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

§ 442-e. Violations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482

§ 442-f. Saving clause.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

§ 442-g. Nonresident licensees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

§ 442-h. Rules of the secretary of state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

§ 442-i. State real estate board.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486

§ 442-j. Effect of invalid provision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

§ 442-k. Powers and duties of the state real estate board.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

§ 442-l. After-the-fact referral fees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

§ 443. Disclosure regarding real estate agency relationship; form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

§ 443-a. Disclosure obligations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

 

Article 12-B

HOME INSPECTION PROFESSIONAL LICENSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

§ 444-a. Short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

§ 444-b. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

§ 444-c. State home inspection council.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496

§ 444-d. License requirements for home inspectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

§ 444-e. Qualifications for licensure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

§ 444-f. License periods, renewals and fees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

§ 444-g. Duty of care of home inspectors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

§ 444-h. Suspension and revocation of licenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

§ 444-i. Denial of license; complaints; notice of hearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

§ 444-j. Practice of architecture and professional engineering.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

§ 444-k. Liability coverage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

§ 444-l. Duties of the secretary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

§ 444-m. Construction with other laws.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

§ 444-n. Unlicensed activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

§ 444-o. Violations and penalties for unlicensed activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

§ 444-p. Judicial review.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

§ 444-q. Severability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

 

Article 12-C

APARTMENT INFORMATION VENDORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

§ 446-a. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

§ 446-b. License required.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

§ 446-c. Contracts; fees; reporting procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

§ 446-d. Display of license and business sign.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

§ 446-e. Revocation and suspension of licenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

§ 446-f. Notice of hearing on complaints.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

§ 446-g. Judicial review.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

§ 446-h. Violations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

§ 446-i. Rules and regulations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506

§ 446-j. Partial invalidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506

 

Article 13

CEMETERY LANDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507

§ 450. Lands used for cemetery purposes not to be sold or mortgaged.. . . . . . . . . . . 507

§ 451. Acquisition of lands for cemetery purposes in certain counties.. . . . . . . . . . . 507

 

Article 14

PROPERTY CONDITION DISCLOSURE IN THE SALE OF RESIDENTIAL

REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

§ 460. Short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

§ 461. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

§ 462. Property condition disclosure statement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

§ 463. Exemptions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

§ 464. Revision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514

§ 465. Remedy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514

§ 466. Duty of an agent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

§ 467. Liability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

 

Article 20

LAWS REPEALED; CONSTRUCTION; WHEN TO TAKE EFFECT . . . . . . . . . . . 516

§ 600. Laws repealed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

§ 601. Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

§ 602. When to take effect.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

 

Part III

Real Property

Actions & PRoceedings law

ARTICLE 1

SHORT TITLE; DEFINITIONS; JURISDICTION OF CERTAIN ACTIONS;

CONSTRUCTION OF ACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519

§ 101. Short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519

§ 111. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519

§ 121. Jurisdiction of certain actions relating to real property situate without

the state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519

§ 131. Construction of act of reconsolidation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519

 

ARTICLE 2

GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING REAL PROPERTY ACTIONS. . . . . . . . . 521

§ 201. State tax commission, state or industrial commissioner as defendant

in certain real property actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

§ 202. Pleading interest of the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

§ 202-a. Pleading interest of a city.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

§ 203. Judgment in action adversely affecting the title, interest or claim

of the state based upon tax deed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

§ 211. Prevention of waste or damage during pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

§ 221. Compelling delivery of possession of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

§ 231. Sale; notice of; when and how conducted.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

§ 232. Purchases by certain officers prohibited; penalty.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

§ 241. Persons bound by judgment in certain actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

 

ARTICLE 3

PROVISIONS RELATING TO EVIDENCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

§ 301. Conveyance and record as evidence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

§ 311. Presumption of possession from legal title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

§ 321. Proof of ownership of unoccupied lands and timber thereon.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

§ 331. Proof of lost execution or writ after sheriff’s sale of real property.. . . . . . . . . 528

§ 341. Recitals as to heirships in conveyances.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

§ 342. Recitals in judgments affecting title to real property as evidence.. . . . . . . . . . 528

§ 351. Evidence as to common lands in the city of New York.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

 

ARTICLE 4

VALUING INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

§ 401. When interests are valued under this article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

§ 402. Interest rate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

§ 403. Mortality and other tables.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

§ 404. (Enacted without section heading). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

§ 405. Interest defeasible by remarriage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

§ 406. Computation by superintendent of insurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

 

ARTICLE 5

ADVERSE POSSESSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

§ 501. Adverse possession; defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

§ 511. Adverse possession under written instrument or judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533

§ 512. Essentials of adverse possession under written instrument or judgment. . . . . 533

§ 521. Adverse possession not under written instrument or judgment. . . . . . . . . . . . 534

§ 522. Essentials of adverse possession not under written instrument

or judgment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537

§ 531. Adverse possession, how affected by relation of landlord and tenant.. . . . . . . 543

§ 541. Adverse possession, how affected by relation of tenants in common.. . . . . . . 543

§ 543. Adverse possession; how affected by acts across a boundary line.. . . . . . . . . 544

§ 551. Right of person to possession not affected by descent cast.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545

 

ARTICLE 6

ACTION TO RECOVER REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546

§ 601. Damages for withholding real property obtainable in action to recover

possession; set-off by defendant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546

§ 611. Where action cannot be maintained: dower; property not exceeding six

inches in width; by mortgagee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547

§ 612. Where action cannot be maintained; action based on reverter or breach

of condition subsequent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548

§ 621. Separate action by joint tenant or tenant in common.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549

§ 623. Action by grantee of lands held adversely.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549

§ 625. Action by reversioner or remainderman after tenant’s default.. . . . . . . . . . . . 549

§ 631. Defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549

§ 633. Action against co-tenant; ouster to be proved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

§ 635. Action against occupants of apartments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

§ 637. Action against one defendant subject to rights of others.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

§ 641. Complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

§ 651. Expiration of plaintiff’s title before trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

§ 653. Judgment to state plaintiff’s estate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

§ 661. Liability of purchaser pending an action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

 

ARTICLE 7

SUMMARY PROCEEDING TO RECOVER POSSESSION OF REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . 552

§ 701. Jurisdiction; courts; venue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

§ 711. Grounds where landlord-tenant relationship exists.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

§ 713. Grounds where no landlord-tenant relationship exists.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660

§ 713-a. Special proceeding for termination of adult home and residence

for adults admission agreements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682

§ 715. Grounds and procedure where use or occupancy is illegal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682

§ 721. Person who may maintain proceeding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688

§ 731. Commencement; notice of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691

§ 732. Special provisions applicable in non-payment proceeding if the rules

so provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695

§ 733. Time of service; order to show cause.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696

§ 734. Notice of petition; service on the Westchester county department

of social services.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

§ 735. Manner of service; filing; when service complete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

§ 741. Contents of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708

§ 743. Answer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729

§ 745. Trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730

§ 747. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732

§ 747-a. Judgments; stays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733

§ 749. Warrant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733

§ 751. Stay upon paying rent or giving undertaking; discretionary stay outside

city of New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755

§ 753. Stay where tenant holds over in premises occupied for dwelling purposes

in city of New York. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

§ 755. Stay of proceeding or action for rent upon failure to make repairs. . . . . . . . . 759

§ 756. Stay of summary proceedings or actions for rent under certain conditions.. . 760

§ 761. Redemption by lessee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

§ 763. Redemption by creditor of lessee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

§ 765. Effect of redemption upon lease.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

§ 767. Order of redemption; liability of persons redeeming.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

 

ARTICLE 7-A

SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS BY TENANTS OF DWELLINGS IN THE CITY OF

NEW YORK AND THE COUNTIES OF NASSAU, SUFFOLK, ROCKLAND

AND WESTCHESTER FOR JUDGMENT DIRECTING DEPOSIT OF

RENTS AND THE USE THEREOF FOR THE PURPOSE OF REMEDYING

CONDITIONS DANGEROUS TO LIFE, HEALTH OR SAFETY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

§ 769. Jurisdiction; court; venue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

§ 770. Grounds for the proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762

§ 771. Commencement; notice of petition; time and manner of service.. . . . . . . . . . 763

§ 772. Contents of petition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764

§ 773. Answer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

§ 774. Trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

§ 775. Defenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

§ 776. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

§ 777. Application by mortgagee or lienor of record or other person having

an interest in the property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766

§ 778. Appointment of administrator.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

§ 779. Presentation or settlement of accounts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770

§ 780. Waiver void.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770

§ 781. “Owner” defined.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770

§ 782. “Dwelling” defined.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771

§ 783. Defense of warranty of habitability inapplicable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771

 

ARTICLE 7-B

SPECIAL PROCEEDING FOR THE REMOVAL OF ABANDONED

MANUFACTURED HOMES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772

§ 790. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772

§ 791. Jurisdiction; courts; venue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772

§ 792. Grounds for the proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

§ 793. Commencement; notice of petition; time and manner of service.. . . . . . . . . . 773

§ 794. Answer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

§ 795. Judgment and warrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

 

ARTICLE 8

WASTE AND OTHER ACTIONS AND RIGHTS OF ACTION FOR INJURY

TO REAL PROPERTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

§ 801. Who liable to action for waste.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

§ 803. Alterations or replacements of structures by person having estate

for life or years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

§ 811. Action for waste by heir, devisee or grantor of reversion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

§ 812. Action for waste by ward against guardian.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

§ 813. Action for waste by grantee of real property sold under execution. . . . . . . . . 776

§ 815. Judgment in action for waste against tenant of particular estate.. . . . . . . . . . . 776

§ 817. Action for waste against joint tenant or tenant in common.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

§ 821. View in action for waste.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

§ 831. Action by reversioner or remainderman.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

§ 833. Recovery of fee damages by the owner of a possessory estate

for life or for years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

§ 841. Action for nuisance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

§ 843. Fences and structures, when private nuisance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

§ 851. Action against certain persons holding over as trespassers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

§ 853. Action for forcible or unlawful entry or detainer; treble damages.. . . . . . . . . 779

§ 861. Action for cutting, removing, injuring or destroying trees or timber, and

damaging lands thereon.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782

§ 871. Action for the removal of encroaching structures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783

§ 881. Access to adjoining property to make improvements or repairs.. . . . . . . . . . . 783

 

ARTICLE 9

ACTION FOR PARTITION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784

§ 901. By whom maintainable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785

§ 903. Necessary defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788

§ 904. Permissible defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789

§ 905. Complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789

§ 907. Trial of title or interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789

§ 911. Ascertainment of rights of parties before interlocutory judgment

on default or admission or where party is an infant, absentee

or unknown defendant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789

§ 913. Inquiry as to creditors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790

§ 915. Interlocutory judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790

§ 916. Interlocutory judgment directing partial partition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791

§ 917. Interlocutory judgment directing partition in common.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791

§ 918. Interlocutory judgment directing sale or exception of lien or dower

interest.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791

§ 919. Interlocutory judgment directing credit on sale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792

§ 921. Actual partition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792

§ 922. Meeting of commissioners; report of actual partition; confirming

or setting aside report.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792

§ 923. Security for credit on sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793

§ 925. Report of sale; confirmation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793

§ 927. Contents of judgment after actual partition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793

§ 928. Effect of judgment after actual partition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793

§ 929. Lien of creditor upon share partitioned.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793

§ 931. Contents of judgment after sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793

§ 933. Effect of judgment after sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794

§ 941. Judgment as to parties having interest in entire property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794

§ 943. Judgment directing compensation to equalize partition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794

§ 945. Judgment adjusting rents and profits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794

§ 947. Judgment affecting state tax claim.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794

§ 951. Recording of judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795

§ 961. Disposition of proceeds of sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795

§ 962. Payment of proceeds into court where there are liens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796

§ 963. Payment of proceeds out of court where there are liens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796

§ 964. Payment of proceeds into court in cases involving decedent’s property.. . . . . 797

§ 965. Payment of proceeds out of court in cases involving decedent’s property.. . . 797

§ 966. Payment of proceeds directly to parties in cases involving decedent’s

property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798

§ 967. Payment of proceeds to owner of particular or future estate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798

§ 968. Manner of payment of proceeds to owner of particular or future estate.. . . . . 798

§ 969. Shares of infant, incompetent or conservatee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798

§ 970. Shares of unknown or absent owner.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

§ 971. Security for refund. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

§ 973. Report of disposition of proceeds.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

Real Pry_15-May-12.indd 27 6/28/12 2:28:46 PM

xxviii Table of Contents

§ 981. Costs and expenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

§ 991. Proceeding for share of unknown heirs; presumption of death; service.. . . . . 800

§ 992. Judgment in proceeding for share of unknown heirs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800

 

ARTICLE 10

ACTION FOR DOWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801

§ 1001. Limitation of action for dower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801

§ 1002. Action barred by assignment of dower.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802

§ 1011. Necessary defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802

§ 1012. Who may be joined as defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802

§ 1013. Actions where defendants claim in severalty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802

§ 1021. Damages may be recovered; how estimated.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802

§ 1022. Damages in action against alienee of husband.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802

§ 1023. Damages where several parcels are affected.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 1024. Damages apportioned between heir and alienee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 1025. Damages against grantee of premises subject to dower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 1031. Complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 1041. Interlocutory judgment for admeasurement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 1043. Dower, how admeasured.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 1044. Report thereupon.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804

§ 1045. Setting aside report.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804

§ 1051. Fees and expenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804

§ 1052. Fees of surveyor or commissioner in action for dower.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804

§ 1061. Final judgment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804

§ 1062. Plaintiff may recover sum awarded; court may modify judgment.. . . . . . . . 805

§ 1063. Junior incumbrances; not affected by admeasurement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805

§ 1064. Appeal not to stay execution if undertaking is given. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805

§ 1071. Plaintiff may consent to receive a gross sum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805

§ 1072. Defendant may consent to pay it; proceedings thereupon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805

§ 1073. Interlocutory judgment for sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806

§ 1074. Direction that a part be laid off.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806

§ 1075. Liens to be ascertained.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806

§ 1076. Satisfaction or protection of lien.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807

§ 1077. Payment of taxes, assessments and water rates out of proceeds.. . . . . . . . . . 807

§ 1078. Report of sale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807

§ 1079. Final judgment upon confirming sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807

§ 1081. Certain provisions made applicable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807

§ 1091. Action to recover property by revisioner or remainderman,

after determination of particular estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807

§ 1093. Collusive recovery not to prejudice infant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808

 

ARTICLE 11

PROCEEDING TO DISCOVER THE DEATH OF A TENANT FOR LIFE. . . . . . . . 809

§ 1101. Petition for production of tenant for life.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809

§ 1102. Contents of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809

§ 1103. Service of petition and notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809

§ 1104. Proceedings upon presentation of petition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810

§ 1105. Service of order; powers of court or referee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810

§ 1106. Habeas corpus.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810

§ 1107. Report of referee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810

§ 1111. Dismissal of petition when order complied with. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810

§ 1112. When life tenant deemed dead and petitioner let into possession.. . . . . . . . . 811

§ 1121. Commission to be issued if life tenant is without the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811

§ 1122. General provisions respecting the commission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811

§ 1123. Petitioner to give notice of its execution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811

§ 1124. Execution thereof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811

§ 1125. Proceedings on return of commission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812

§ 1131. Costs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812

§ 1141. Property; when restored. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812

§ 1142. Remedy of person evicted for rents and profits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812

§ 1143. Order not conclusive in ejectment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812

 

ARTICLE 12

OTHER ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS BETWEEN CO-OWNERS

OR OWNERS OF SUCCESSIVE INTERESTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813

§ 1201. Action by joint tenant or tenant in common; may maintain action against

co-tenant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813

§ 1211. Action by joint tenant, tenant in common or tenant by the entirety for

extinguishment of missing co-tenant’s estate upon deposit of its value. . 813

§ 1221. Action to sell preemptive rights against the city of New York.. . . . . . . . . . . 814

 

ARTICLE 13

ACTION TO FORECLOSE A MORTGAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816

§ 1301. Separate action for mortgage debt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816

§ 1302. Foreclosure of high-cost home loans and subprime home loans. . . . . . . . . . 840

§ 1303. Foreclosures; required notices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841

§ 1304. Required prior notices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843

§ 1311. Necessary defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847

§ 1312. Representative defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848

§ 1313. Permissible defendants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849

§ 1315. Action by owner of junior participating interest.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849

§ 1320. Special summons requirement in private residence cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850

§ 1321. Default or admission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850

§ 1325. Receiver.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

§ 1331. Notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856

§ 1341. Payment into court of amount due. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

§ 1351. Judgment of sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

§ 1352. Judgment foreclosing right of redemption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870

§ 1353. Conveyance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871

§ 1354. Distribution of proceeds of sale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872

§ 1355. Report of sale; confirmation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874

§ 1361. Application for surplus; reference.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875

§ 1362. Payment of surplus out of court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876

§ 1371. Deficiency judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877

§ 1391. Proceeding for share of unknown heirs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879

 

ARTICLE 15

ACTION TO COMPEL THE DETERMINATION OF A CLAIM TO REAL

PROPERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880

§ 1501. Who may maintain an action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880

§ 1503. Action to determine claims where foreclosure of mortgage was void

or voidable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883

§ 1511. Additional parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885

§ 1513. Guardians ad litem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885

§ 1515. Complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886

§ 1517. Answer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886

§ 1519. Proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887

§ 1521. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887

§ 1522. Accounting in certain cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889

§ 1523. Judgment of foreclosure in certain cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889

§ 1531. Effect of judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890

§ 1541. Article applies to corporations and to the people of the state

of New York.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891

§ 1551. Effect of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891

 

ARTICLE 16

JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION OF SALE, LEASE, MORTGAGE,

ACQUISITION, EXCHANGE OR VOLUNTARY PARTITION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892

§ 1601. Application by trustee for court authorization to mortgage, to lease,

to sell, to acquire or to exchange real property or for confirmation

of a lease of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892

§ 1602. Application by owner of present or future interest for court authorization

to mortgage, to lease or to sell real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893

§ 1603. Court to which application is to be made.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893

§ 1604. When application shall be granted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893

§ 1605. Contents of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893

§ 1606. Notice of application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893

§ 1607. Service of notice upon presumptive members of class.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894

§ 1608. Guardians ad litem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894

§ 1609. Final order upon the application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894

§ 1610. Final order authorizing acquisition or exchange of land or confirming

lease; execution and binding force.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894

§ 1611. Final order; appointment of referee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894

§ 1612. Report of agreement for confirmation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895

§ 1613. Order of confirmation; contents and subsequent procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . 895

§ 1614. Binding force of mortgage, sale or lease duly made with judicial

approval.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895

§ 1615. Date of creation of affected interests.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895

§ 1616. Application to compensation arising out of appropriation of real

property by the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895

§ 1641. Executors’, fiduciaries’ and trustees’ conveyances to certain

corporations in exchange for certain stocks and bonds authorized

and regulated.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897

§ 1651. Proceedings for voluntary partition of infant’s, incompetent’s

or conservatee’s real property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898

 

ARTICLE 17

SPECIAL PROCEEDING FOR DISPOSITION OF REAL PROPERTY

OF INFANT, INCOMPETENT OR CONSERVATEE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900

§ 1701. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900

§ 1711. Grounds.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901

§ 1712. By whom maintainable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901

§ 1721. Notice of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901

§ 1722. Contents of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902

§ 1731. Infant, incompetent or conservatee a ward of court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902

§ 1741. Reference.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902

§ 1742. Appraisal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902

§ 1743. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903

§ 1744. Security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903

§ 1745. Report and confirmation of agreement and of conveyance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903

§ 1746. When particular estates to be included in disposition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903

§ 1747. When reversionary estates to be included in sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904

§ 1751. Sale contrary to will or conveyance prohibited.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904

§ 1753. Effect of disposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904

§ 1755. Proceeds of sale deemed real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904

§ 1761. Distribution of proceeds of disposition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904

§ 1762. Distribution of proceeds to owner of particular or reversionary estate.. . . . . 905

§ 1763. Distribution of proceeds upon release of inchoate right of dower. . . . . . . . . 905

§ 1764. Distribution of proceeds where there is an interest of an infant

not in being. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906

§ 1765. Distribution of proceeds to guardian of infant, committee

of incompetent or conservator of conservatee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906

§ 1766. Distribution of proceeds on death of infant, incompetent or conservatee.. . . 907

 

ARTICLE 18

SPECIAL PROCEEDING FOR RELEASE OF CLAIM AGAINST STATE OF

INFANT OR INCOMPETENT FOR APPROPRIATION OF REAL PROPERTY. . . 908

§ 1801. Grounds.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908

§ 1802. By whom maintained. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908

§ 1803. Notice of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909

§ 1804. Contents of petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909

§ 1805. Security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909

§ 1806. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909

§ 1807. Payment of compensation; release.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910

§ 1808. Distribution of proceeds of compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910

 

ARTICLE 19

DISCHARGE OR EXTINGUISHMENT OF ENCUMBRANCES,

CLAIMS AND INTERESTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911

§ 1901. Release of rents reserved by leases in perpetuity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911

§ 1911. Action to extinguish inchoate right of dower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912

§ 1921. Discharge of mortgage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912

§ 1921-a. Partial release from lien of mortgaged premises.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917

§ 1931. Discharge of record of ancient mortgages presumed paid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919

§ 1932. Discharge of record of ancient mortgage where time of maturity

is dependent on contingent event related to use of premises.. . . . . . . . . . 921

§ 1933. When county clerk or register to discharge mortgage of record.. . . . . . . . . . 922

§ 1941. When special proceeding to quiet title may be maintained.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922

§ 1942. Petition in special proceeding to quiet title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922

§ 1943. Order for publication of notice to persons interested.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922

§ 1944. Hearing and final order upon non-appearance of adverse claimants. . . . . . . 923

§ 1945. Hearing and final order upon appearance of adverse claimants.. . . . . . . . . . 923

§ 1946. Notice of pendency to be filed and recorded.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923

§ 1951. Extinguishment of non-substantial restrictions on the use of land.. . . . . . . . 923

§ 1953. Effect of certain special limitations and conditions subsequent.. . . . . . . . . . 924

§ 1954. Action to limit existing possibilities of reverter and rights of entry

restricting the use of land.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925

§ 1955. Modification or extinguishment of certain restrictions on the use

of land held for charitable purposes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926

 

ARTICLE 19-A

SPECIAL PROCEEDING TO CONVEY TITLE TO ABANDONED

DWELLING TO CITY, TOWN OR VILLAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929

§ 1970. Applicability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929

§ 1971. Certification of abandonment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929

§ 1971-a. Destruction of abandoned dwellings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930

§ 1972. Notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930

§ 1973. Commencement of proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931

§ 1974. Decision and judgment of court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931

 

ARTICLE 20

ENFORCEMENT OF COVENANTS AND EASEMENTS; RECOVERY OF

DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF COVENANT OR INJURY TO EASEMENT . . . . . 933

§ 2001. Action to enforce certain covenants restricting use of land

or for damages for breach to be brought within two years. . . . . . . . . . . . 933

 

ARTICLE 21

EFFECTIVE DATE; LAWS REPEALED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935

§ 2101. Effective date.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935

§ 2111. Laws repealed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935

 

 

Part IV

Additional Landlord tenant Cases

Partial/constructive eviction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941

Commercial leases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945

Particular lease provisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956

Acceptance/retention of rent/security deposit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979

 

Part V

New York Law Journal Columns

Co-ops and Condos

Control of Access To Telecommunication s

By Richard Siegler and Eva Talel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989

Greenhouses and Structures In Condominiums

By Richard Siegler and EvaTalel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994

‘Levandusky ’ at 21: Board Protection Continues

By Richard Siegler and Eva Talel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998

Warranty of Habitability Updated : Mold, Bedbugs , Lead

Paint, Leaks

By Richard Siegler and Eva Talel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003

Duties and Liabilities Of Managing Agents

By Richard Siegler and Eva Talel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008

Protecting Confidentiality Of Board Matter s

By Richard Siegler and Eva Talel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013

Foreclosure

Foreclosure Actions: Is Federal Court a Viable Option?

By Steven B. Aptheker; and Russell L. Penzer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019

The Unusual Role of Process Service in Foreclosure Cases

By Bruce J. Bergman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023

Proposed Law Presents Danger To Mortgage Enforcement

By Bruce J. Bergman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027

Proposed Statutes to Place Burden on Foreclosures

By Bruce J. Bergman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033

The Trouble With the Lender Maintenance Obligatio n

By Bruce J. Bergman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040

Landlord Tenant

Hot Tips on Ways to Lose Your Summary Proceedin g

By Warren A. Estis and William J. Robbins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045

Being a Marlboro Man In Your Own Home

By Warren A. Estis and William J. Robbins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051

Tenant Granted Attorney ’s Fees Based on Lease

By Warren A. Estis and William J. Robbins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057

Issues Involving the Signing Of Predicate Notice s

By Warren A. Estis and William J. Robbins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062

Real Estate Securities

Real Estate Workouts : Cancellation Of Indebtedness

Income (Part I)

By Peter M. Fass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067

Real Estate Workouts : Cancellation Of Indebtedness

Income (Part II)

By Peter M. Fass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072

Real Estate Workouts : Cancellation Of Indebtedness

Income, Part III

By Peter M. Fass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077

Real Estate Workouts : Cancellation Of Indebtedness

Income, Part IV

By Peter M. Fass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1081

Real Estate Workouts —Tax Consequences When a Loan Is

Modified

By Peter M. Fass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085

Rent Regulation

Court Splits on Major Capital Improvement Policy

By Warren A. Estis and Jeffrey Turkel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1089

Court Confirms Board Authority To Increase Rents

By Warren A. Estis and Jeffrey Turkel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093

The Economics Of Luxury Deregulatio n

By Warren A. Estis and Jeffrey Turkel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097

Major Capital Improvement ‘Useful Life’ Requiremen t

By Warren A. Estis and Jeffrey Turkel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100

The Four Year Rule: Where Are We Now in Light of ‘Grimm’

By Menachem J. Kastner and Ally Hack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104

 

Index

Alphabetical index of statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109