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New York Civil Practice Law & Rules contains the full text of the New York Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR), organized with digests of hundreds of relevant Decisions of Interest from the New York Law Journal interpreting key sections of the law and addressing judgments and provisional remedies, all in one place.

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  • Availability: Available
  • Brand: New York Law Journal Books
  • Product Type: Books
  • Page Count: 1400
  • ISBN: 978-1-57625-835-4
  • Pub#/SKU#: NYCPLR
  • Pub Date: 05/31/2013
  • Volume(s): 1
  • Frequency: Annually

ARTICLE 1

SHORT TITLE; APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

§ 101. Short title; application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

§ 102. Amendment, rescission or adoption of rules.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

§ 103. Form of civil judicial proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

§ 104. Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

§ 105. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

§ 106. Civil and criminal prosecutions not merged.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

§ 107. Appendix of official forms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

ARTICLE 2

LIMITATIONS OF TIME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

§ 201. Application of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

§ 202. Cause of action accruing without the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

§ 203. Method of computing periods of limitation generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

§ 204. Stay of commencement of action; demand for arbitration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

§ 205. Termination of action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

§ 206. Computing periods of limitation in particular actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

§ 207. Defendant’s absence from state or residence under false name.. . . . . . . . . . . 27

§ 208. Infancy, insanity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

§ 209. War.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

§ 210. Death of claimant or person liable; cause of action accruing after death and before grant of letters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

§ 211. Actions to be commenced within twenty years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

§ 212. Actions to be commenced within ten years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

§ 213. Actions to be commenced within six years: where not otherwise provided for; on contract; on sealed instrument; on bond or note, and mortgage upon real property; by state based on misappropriation of public property; based on mistake; by corporation against director, officer or stockholder; based on fraud.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

§ 213-a. Actions to be commenced within four years; residential rent overcharge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

§ 213-b. Action by a victim of a criminal offense.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

§ 213-c. Action by victim of conduct constituting certain sexual offenses.. . . . . . . . 56

§ 214. Actions to be commenced within three years: for non-payment of money collected on execution; for penalty created by statute; to recover chattel; for injury to property; for personal injury; for malpractice other than medical, dental or podiatric malpractice; to annul a marriage on the ground of fraud.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

§ 214-a. Action for medical, dental or podiatric malpractice to be commenced within two years and six months; exceptions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

§ 214-b. Action to recover damages for personal injury caused by contact with or exposure to phenoxy herbicides.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

§ 214-c. Certain actions to be commenced within three years of discovery.. . . . . . . 84

§ 214-d. Limitations on certain actions against licensed engineers and architects.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88

§ 214-e. Action to recover damages for personal injury caused by the infusion of such blood products which result in the contraction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or AIDS. . . . . . . . . . 90

§ 215. Actions to be commenced within one year: against sheriff, coroner or constable; for escape of prisoner; for assault, battery, false imprisonment, malicious prosecution, libel or slander; for violation of right of privacy; for penalty given to informer; on arbitration award.. . . . . 90

§ 216. Abbreviation of period to one year after notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

§ 217. Proceeding against body or officer; actions complaining about conduct that would constitute a union’s breach of its duty of fair representation; four months.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 98

§ 218. Transitional provisions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

 

ARTICLE 3

JURISDICTION AND SERVICE, APPEARANCE AND CHOICE OF COURT. . . . 109

§ 301. Jurisdiction over persons, property or status.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

§ 302. Personal jurisdiction by acts of non-domiciliaries.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

§ 303. Designation of attorney as agent for service.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

* § 304. Method of commencing action or special proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Rule 305. Summons; supplemental summons, amendment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Rule 306. Proof of service.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

§ 306-a. Index number in an action or proceeding commenced in supreme or county court.. . . . . . . . 173

§ 306-b. Service of the summons and complaint, summons with notice, third-party summons and complaint, or petition with a notice of petition or order to show cause... . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

§ 307. Personal service upon the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

§ 308. Personal service upon a natural person.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

§ 309. Personal service upon an infant, incompetent or conservatee.. . . . . . . . . . . . 199

§ 310. Personal service upon a partnership.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

§ 310-a. Personal service upon a limited partnership.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

§ 311. Personal service upon a corporation or governmental subdivision.. . . . . . . . 201

§ 311-a. Personal service on limited liability companies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

§ 312. Personal service upon a court, board or commission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

§ 312-a. Personal service by mail.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

§ 313. Service without the state giving personal jurisdiction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

§ 314. Service without the state not giving personal jurisdiction in certain actions. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 210

§ 315. Service by publication authorized.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Rule 316. Service by publication.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

§ 317. Defense by person to whom summons not personally delivered.. . . . . . . . . 212

Rule 318. Designation of agent for service.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Rule 320. Defendant’s appearance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

§ 321. Attorneys.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Rule 322. Authority for appearance of attorney in real property action.. . . . . . . . . . 219

§ 325. Grounds for removal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Rule 326. Procedure on removal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Rule 327. Inconvenient forum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Rule 328. Assistance to tribunals and litigants outside the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

 

ARTICLE 4

SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

§ 401. Parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

§ 402. Pleadings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

§ 403. Notice of petition; service; order to show cause.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

§ 404. Objections in point of law.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

§ 405. Correction of defects in papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Rule 406. Motions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

§ 407. Severance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

§ 408. Disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Rule 409. Hearing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

§ 410. Trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

Rule 411. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

 

ARTICLE 5

VENUE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

§ 501. Contractual provisions fixing venue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

§ 502. Conflicting venue provisions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

§ 503. Venue based on residence.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

§ 504. Actions against counties, cities, towns, villages, school districts and district corporations. . . . 249

§ 505. Actions involving public authorities.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

§ 506. Where special proceeding commenced.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

§ 507. Real property actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

§ 508. Actions to recover a chattel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

§ 509. Venue in county designated.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

§ 510. Grounds for change of place of trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Rule. 511. Change of place of trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Rule 512. Change of place of trial of action or issue triable without a jury.. . . . . . . 265

§ 513. Misplacement of venue in consumer credit transactions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

 

ARTICLE 6

JOINDER OF CLAIMS, CONSOLIDATION AND SEVERANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

§ 601. Joinder of claims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

§ 602. Consolidation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

§ 603. Severance and separate trials.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

§ 604. Change by supreme court of place of trial of action pending in another court. . .. . . . . . . . 276

 

ARTICLE  9

CLASS ACTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

§ 901. Prerequisites to a class action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

§ 902. Order allowing class action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

§ 903. Description of class.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

§ 904. Notice of class action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

§ 905. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

§ 906. Actions conducted partially as class actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Rule 907. Orders in conduct of class actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Rule 908. Dismissal, discontinuance or compromise.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Rule 909. Attorneys’ fees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

 

ARTICLE 10

PARTIES GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

§ 1001. Necessary joinder of parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

§ 1002. Permissive joinder of parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

§ 1003. Nonjoinder and misjoinder of parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

§ 1004. When joinder unnecessary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

§ 1006. Interpleader.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

§ 1007. When third-party practice allowed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

§ 1008. Answer of third-party defendant; defenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Rule 1009. Claim by plaintiff against third-party defendant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Rule 1010. Dismissal or separate trial of third-party complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Rule 1011. Successive third-party proceedings; counterclaims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

§ 1012. Intervention as of right; notice to attorney-general, city, county, town or village where constitutionality in issue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

§ 1013. Intervention by permission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

§ 1014. Proposed intervention pleading.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§ 1015. Substitution upon death.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§ 1016. Substitution of committee or conservator.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

§ 1017. Substitution in case of receivership or dissolution of a corporation.. . . . . . 311

§ 1018. Substitution upon transfer of interest.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

§ 1019. Substitution of public officers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

§ 1020. Substitution of indemnitors for executing or attaching officer.. . . . . . . . . . 311

§ 1021. Substitution procedure; dismissal for failure to substitute; presentation of appeal.. . . . . . . . . .311

§ 1022. Substitution: extension of time for taking procedural steps.. . . . . . . . . . . . 313

§ 1023. Public body or officer described by official title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

§ 1024. Unknown parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

§ 1025. Partnerships and unincorporated associations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

§ 1026. Review of determinations by administrative officers of the unified court system.. . .. .. . 314

 

ARTICLE 11

POOR PERSONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

§ 1101. Motion for permission to proceed as a poor person; affidavit; certificate; notice; waiver of fee; when motion not required.. . . . . . . . . . . 315

§ 1102. Privileges of poor person.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

§ 1103. Distribution of recovery in favor of poor person.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

 

ARTICLE 12

INFANTS, INCOMPETENTS AND CONSERVATEES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

§ 1201. Representation of infant, incompetent person, or conservatee.. . . . . . . . . . 320

Rule 1202. Appointment of guardian ad litem.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

§ 1203. Default judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

§ 1204. Compensation of guardian ad litem.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

§ 1205. Liability for costs of infant, judicially declared incompetent, or conservatee, or representative……... 328

§ 1206. Disposition of proceeds of claim of infant, judicially declared incompetent or conservatee.. . .328

§ 1207. Settlement of action or claim by infant, judicially declared incompetent or conservatee, by whom motion made; special proceeding; notice; order of settlement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Rule 1208. Settlement procedure; papers; representation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

§ 1209. Arbitration of controversy involving infant, judicially declared incompetent or conservatee... 334

Rule 1210. Guardian of infant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

Rule 1211. Allowance for infant’s support.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

 

ARTICLE 13

ACTIONS BY THE STATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

§ 1301. Actions in behalf of the people to be brought in the name of the state.. . . . 337

§ 1302. Action brought on relation of a person.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

§ 1303. Procedure in action brought by the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

ARTICLE 13-A

PROCEEDS OF A CRIME FORFEITURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

§ 1310. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

§ 1311. Forfeiture actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

§ 1311-a. Subpoena duces tecum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

§ 1312. Provisional remedies; generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

§ 1313. Debt or property subject to attachment; proper garnishee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

§ 1314. Attaching creditor’s rights in personal property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

§ 1315. Discharge of garnishee’s obligation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

§ 1316. Order of attachment on notice; temporary restraining order; contents.. . . . 352

§ 1317. Order of attachment without notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 1318. Motion papers; filing; demand; damages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

§ 1319. Service of summons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

§ 1320. Levy upon personal property by service of order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

§ 1321. Levy upon personal property by seizure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

§ 1322. Levy upon real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

§ 1323. Additional undertaking to carrier garnishee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

§ 1324. Claiming agent’s duties after levy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

§ 1325. Garnishee’s statement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

§ 1326. Disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

§ 1327. Proceedings to determine adverse claims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

§ 1328. Discharge of attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

§ 1329. Vacating or modifying attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

§ 1330. Annulment of attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

§ 1331. Return of property; directions to clerk and claiming agent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

§ 1332. Disposition of attachment property after execution issued; priority of orders of attachment.. 357

§ 1333. Grounds for preliminary injunction and temporary restraining order.. . . . . 357

§ 1334. Motion papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

§ 1335. Temporary restraining order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 1336. Vacating or modifying preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 1337. Ascertaining damages sustained by reason of preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 1338. Appointment and powers of temporary receiver.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

§ 1339. Oath.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 1340. Undertaking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 1341. Accounts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 1342. Removal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 1343. Notice of pendency; constructive notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 1344. Filing, content and indexing of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

§ 1345. Service of summons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

§ 1346. Duration of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

§ 1347. Motion for cancellation of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

§ 1348. Undertaking for cancellation of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

§ 1349. Disposal of property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

§ 1350. Rules of procedure; in general.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

§ 1351. Application of article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

§ 1352. Preservation of other rights and remedies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

 

ARTICLE 13-B

CIVIL REMEDIES; ENTERPRISE CORRUPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

§ 1353. Civil remedies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

§ 1354. Joinder of a party.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

§ 1355. Civil actions notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

 

ARTICLE 14

CONTRIBUTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

§ 1401. Claim for contribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

§ 1402. Amount of contribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 1403. How contribution claimed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

§ 1404. Rights of persons entitled to damages not affected; Rights of indemnity or subrogation preserved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

 

ARTICLE 14-A

DAMAGE ACTIONS: EFFECT OF CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE AND ASSUMPTION OF RISK. . . . . . . . .. 370

§ 1411. Damages recoverable when contributory negligence or assumption of risk is established.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

§ 1412. Burden of pleading; burden of proof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

§ 1413. Applicability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

 

ARTICLE 15

ACTIONS AGAINST PERSONS JOINTLY LIABLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

§ 1501. Actions against persons jointly liable; service of summons; judgment.. . . 372

§ 1502. Provisional remedies and defenses in subsequent action against co-obligor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

 

ARTICLE 16

LIMITED LIABILITY OF PERSONS JOINTLY LIABLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

§ 1600. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

§ 1601. Limited liability of persons jointly liable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

§ 1602. Application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

§ 1603. Burdens of proof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

 

ARTICLE 20

MISTAKES, DEFECTS, IRREGULARITIES AND EXTENSIONS OF TIME. . . . . 376

§ 2001. Mistakes, omissions, defects and irregularities.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

§ 2002. Error in ruling of court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

§ 2003. Irregularity in judicial sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

§ 2004. Extensions of time generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

§ 2005. Excusable delay or default.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

 

ARTICLE 21

PAPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

Rule 2101. Form of papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

Rule 2102. Filing of papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

Rule 2103. Service of papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Rule 2103-a. Confidentiality of addresses in civil proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

Rule 2104. Stipulations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

§ 2105. Certification by attorney.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

Rule 2106. Affirmation of truth of statement by attorney, physician, osteopath or dentist.. . . . . . . . . 429

 

ARTICLE 22

STAY, MOTIONS, ORDERS AND MANDATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

§ 2201. Stay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

§ 2211. Application for order; when motion made.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

§ 2212. Where motion made, in supreme court action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

§ 2213. Where motion made, in county court action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

Rule 2214. Motion papers; service; time.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

Rule 2215. Relief demanded by other than moving party.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

Rule 2217. Prior motion; ex parte motion; transfer of motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

§ 2218. Trial of issue raised on motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

Rule 2219. Time and form of order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

Rule 2220. Entry and filing of order; service.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

Rule 2221. Motion affecting prior order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

Rule 2222. Docketing order as judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

Rule 2223. Duties of officer receiving mandate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

 

ARTICLE 23

SUBPOENAS, OATHS AND AFFIRMATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

§ 2301. Scope of subpoena.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

§ 2302. Authority to issue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

§ 2303. Service of subpoena; payment of fees in advance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

§ 2303-A. Service of a trial subpoena.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

§ 2304. Motion to quash, fix conditions or modify.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

§ 2305. Attendance required pursuant to subpoena; possession of books, records, documents or papers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481

§ 2306. Hospital records; medical records of department or bureau of a municipal corporation or of the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481

§ 2307. Books, papers and other things of a library, department or bureau of a municipal corporation or of the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482

§ 2308. Disobedience of subpoena.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

§ 2309. Oaths and affirmations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

§ 2310. Exclusions from article.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

 

ARTICLE 24

PUBLICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

§ 2401. Order when publication cannot be made.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

§ 2402. Computation of time for publication of notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

 

ARTICLE 25

UNDERTAKINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

§ 2501. Undertaking; definition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

§ 2502. Surety; form of affidavit; two or more undertakings; condition; acknowledgment.. . . . . . . . . .491

§ 2503. Undertaking of more than one thousand dollars; real property; lien.. . . . . . 492

§ 2504. Waiver of undertaking; removal and change of parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

§ 2505. Filing of undertaking; service upon adverse party; time when effective.. . .493

§ 2506. Exception to surety; allowance where no exception taken.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

§ 2507. Justification of surety.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

§ 2508. Motion for new or additional undertaking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

§ 2509. Control of assets by agreement with surety.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

§ 2510. Discharge of surety on the undertaking of a fiduciary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

§ 2511. Liability of surety.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494

§ 2512. Undertaking by the state, municipal corporation or public officer.. . . . . . . 495

§ 2513. Action on undertaking to a public officer, board or municipal corporation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495

 

ARTICLE 26

PROPERTY PAID INTO COURT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496

§ 2601. Payment of money or securities into court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496

§ 2602. Payment into court of property other than money or securities; deposit with warehouse or safe deposit company.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496

§ 2603. Cost of administration of property paid into court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

§ 2604. Calculation of gross sum in lieu of income.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

Rule 2605. Duties of depositories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

Rule 2606. Obtaining order for payment out of court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

Rule 2607. Payment of property paid into court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

§ 2608. Liability of custodian.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

Rule 2609. Deposit by referee appointed to sell property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

 

ARTICLE 27

DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY IN LITIGATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

§ 2701. When court may order disposition of property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

§ 2702. Sale of property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

§ 2703. Enforcement of order directing disposition of property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

 

ARTICLE 30

REMEDIES AND PLEADING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

* § 3001. Declaratory judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

§ 3002. Actions and relief not barred for inconsistency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

§ 3003. Action for periodic payments due under pension or retirement contract no bar to action for future installments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

§ 3004. Where restoration of benefits before judgment unnecessary.. . . . . . . . . . . . 504

§ 3005. Relief against mistake of law.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

§ 3011. Kinds of pleadings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

§ 3012. Service of pleadings and demand for complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506

§ 3012-a. Certificate of merit in medical, dental and podiatric malpractice actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

§ 3013. Particularity of statements generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511

Rule 3014. Statements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

Rule 3015. Particularity as to specific matters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

Rule 3016. Particularity in specific actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

§ 3017. Demand for relief.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521

§ 3018. Responsive pleadings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

§ 3019. Counterclaims and cross-claims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

§ 3020. Verification.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529

Rule 3021. Form of affidavit of verification.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

Rule 3022. Remedy for defective verification.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

Rule 3023. Construction of verified pleading.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

Rule 3024. Motion to correct pleadings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

Rule 3025. Amended and supplemental pleadings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

§ 3026. Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

§ 3031. Simplified procedure for court determination of disputes—action without pleadings.. . . . . . . 554

Rule 3032. Contents of statement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554

§ 3033. Contracts to submit; enforcement of submission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554

Rule 3034. Motion procedure to settle statement terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

§ 3035. Simplified procedure authorized.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

Rule 3036. Court determination.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555

§ 3037. Appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

§ 3041. Bill of particulars in any case.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557

Rule 3042. Procedure for bill of particulars.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557

Rule 3043. Bill of particulars in personal injury actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

§ 3044. Verification of bill of particulars.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560

§ 3045. Arbitration of damages in medical, dental or podiatric malpractice actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561

 

ARTICLE 31

DISCLOSURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562

§ 3101. Scope of disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564

§3101b (subd. b) Privileged matter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566

§3101c (subd. c) Attorney’s work product.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569

§3101d (subd. d) Trial preparation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570

§3101f (subd. f) Contents of insurance agreement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573

§3101g (subd. g) Accident reports.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573

§3101h (subd. h) Amendment or supplementation of responses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573

§3101i (subd. i) Disclosure of any films, photographs, video tapes or audio tapes, including transcripts or memoranda thereof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

§ 3102. Method of obtaining disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

§3102c ( subd. c) Before action commenced.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

§3102e Action pending in another jurisdiction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578

§ 3103. Protective orders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578

§ 3104. Supervision of disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588

Rule 3105. Notice to party in default.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589

Rule 3106. Priority of depositions; witnesses; prisoners; designation of deponent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589

Rule 3107. Notice of taking oral questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590

Rule 3108. Written questions; when permitted.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590

Rule 3109. Notice of taking deposition on written questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591

Rule 3110. Where the deposition is to be taken within the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592

Rule 3111. Production of things at the examination.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Rule 3112. Errors in notice for taking depositions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Rule 3113. Conduct of the examination.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Rule 3114. Examination of witness who does not understand the English language.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .596

Rule 3115. Objections to qualification of person taking deposition; competency; questions and answers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

Rule 3116. Signing deposition; physical preparation; copies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598

Rule 3117. Use of depositions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600

Rule 3118. Demand for address of party or of person who possessed an assigned cause of action or defense.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603

Rule 3119. Uniform Interstate Depositions And Discovery.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603

Rule 3120. Discovery and production of documents and things for inspection, testing, copying or photographing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604

§ 3121. Physical or mental examination.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614

Rule 3122. Objection to disclosure, inspection or examination; compliance.. . . . . 617

Rule 3122-a. Certification of business records.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619

§ 3123. Admissions as to matters of fact, papers, documents and photographs.. . . 619

Rule 3124. Failure to disclose; motion to compel disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624

Rule 3125. Place where motion to compel disclosure made.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636

§ 3126. Penalties for refusal to comply with order or to disclose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636

§ 3130. Use of interrogatories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658

§ 3131. Scope of interrogatories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658

Rule 3132. Service of interrogatories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659

Rule 3133. Service of answers or objections to interrogatories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659

§ 3140. Disclosure of appraisals in proceedings for condemnation, appropriation or review of tax assessments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660

 

ARTICLE 32

ACCELERATED JUDGMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661

§ 3201. Confession of judgment before default on certain installment contracts invalid.. . . . . . . . . . . .662

Rule 3211. Motion to dismiss.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662

Rule 3212. Motion for summary judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681

§ 3213. Motion for summary judgment in lieu of complaint.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709

Rule. 3214. Motions heard by judge supervising disclosure; stay of disclosure.. . . 714

§ 3215. Default judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714

Rule 3216. Want of prosecution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733

R3217..Voluntary discontinuance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736

§ 3218. Judgment by confession.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741

Rule 3219. Tender.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744

Rule 3220. Offer to liquidate damages conditionally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745

Rule 3221. Offer to compromise.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745

Rule 3222. Action on submitted facts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745

 

ARTICLE 34

CALENDAR PRACTICE; TRIAL PREFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747

Rule 3401. Rules for the hearing of causes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747

Rule 3402. Note of issue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747

Rule 3403. Trial preferences.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748

Rule 3404. Dismissal of abandoned cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749

Rule 3405. Arbitration of certain claims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752

Rule 3406. Mandatory filing and pre-calendar conference in dental, podiatric and medical malpractice actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752

Rule 3407. Preliminary conference in personal injury actions involving certain terminally ill parties. . 753

Rule 3408. Mandatory settlement conference in residential foreclosure actions.. . . 754

 

ARTICLE 40

TRIAL GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758

§ 4001. Powers of referees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758

Rule 4011. Sequence of trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758

Rule 4012. Marked pleadings furnished.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .758

Rule 4013. Trial elsewhere than at courthouse.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758

Rule 4014. Duration of trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758

Rule 4015. Time for motion for referee or advisory jury.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758

Rule 4016. Opening and closing statements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759

§ 4017. Objections.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759

Rule 4018. Increased damages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759

Rule 4019. Recording in camera interviews of infants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

article41

TRIAL BY A JURY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

§ 4101. Issues triable by a jury revealed before trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761

§ 4102. Demand and waiver of trial by jury; specification of issues.. . . . . . . . . . . . 763

§ 4103. Issues triable by a jury revealed at trial; demand and waiver of trial by jury.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

§ 4104. Number of jurors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

§ 4105. Persons who constitute the jury.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

§ 4106. Alternate jurors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

Rule 4107. Judge present at examination of jurors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

§ 4108. Challenges generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767

§ 4109. Peremptory challenges.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768

§ 4110. Challenges for cause.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768

§ 4110-a. Competency of inhabitants as justices or jurors; undertakings not required of village.. . . . . 768

§ 4110-b. Instructions to jury; objection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768

§ 4110-c. Trial jury; viewing of premises.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769

Rule 4111. General and special verdicts and written interrogatories.. . . . . . . . . . . . 770

Rule 4112. Entry of verdict.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772

§ 4113. Disagreement by jury.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .772

 

ARTICLE 42

TRIAL BY THE COURT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

§ 4201. Powers of referees to report.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

Rule 4211. Issues to be decided by the court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

Rule 4212. Advisory jury; referee to report.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

§ 4213. Decision of the court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

 

ARTICLE 43

TRIAL BY A REFEREE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

§ 4301. Powers of referee to determine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

Rule 4311. Order of reference.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

Rule 4312. Number of referees; qualifications.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775

Rule 4313. Notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

Rule 4314. Successor referee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

Rule 4315. Referee to be sworn.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

Rule 4316. Procedure where more than one referee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

§ 4317. When reference to determine may be used.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

§ 4318. Conduct of trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

§ 4319. Decision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

§ 4320. Reference to report.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

Rule 4321. Fees and expenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777

 

ARTICLE 44

TRIAL MOTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

Rule 4401. Motion for judgment during trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

§ 4401-a. Motion for judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

Rule 4402. Motion for continuance or new trial during trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779

Rule 4403. Motion for new trial or to confirm or reject or grant other relief after reference to report or verdict of advisory jury.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779

Rule 4404. Post-trial motion for judgment and new trial.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782

Rule 4405. Time and judge before whom post-trial motion made.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

Rule 4406. Single post-trial motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800

 

ARTICLE 45

EVIDENCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801

§ 4501. Self-incrimination.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 4502. Spouse.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803

§ 4503. Attorney.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804

§ 4504. Physician, dentist, podiatrist, chiropractor and nurse.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809

§ 4505. Confidential communication to clergy privileged.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816

§ 4506. Eavesdropping evidence; admissibility; motion to suppress in certain cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817

§ 4507. Psychologist.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819

§ 4508. Social worker.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820

§ 4509. Library records.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821

§ 4510. Rape crisis counselor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822

Rule 4511. Judicial notice of law.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822

§ 4512. Competency of interested witness or spouse.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823

§ 4513. Competency of person convicted of crime.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824

Rule 4514. Impeachment of witness by prior inconsistent statement.. . . . . . . . . . . 824

Rule 4515. Form of expert opinion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825

Rule 4516. Proof of age of child.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841

Rule 4517. Prior testimony in a civil action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841

Rule 4518. Business records.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842

§ 4519. Personal transaction or communication between witness and decedent or mentally ill person.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853

Rule 4520. Certificate or affidavit of public officer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

Rule 4521. Lack of record.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

Rule 4522. Ancient filed maps, surveys and records affecting real property.. . . . . . 855

Rule 4523. Search by title insurance or abstract company.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

Rule 4524. Conveyance of real property without the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .855

Rule 4525. Copies of statements under article nine of the uniform commercial code.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

Rule 4526. Marriage certificate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856

§ 4527. Death or other status of missing person.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856

Rule 4528. Weather conditions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856

Rule 4529. Inspection certificate issued by United States department of agriculture.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .856

§ 4530. Certificate of population.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856

Rule 4531. Affidavit of service or posting notice by person unavailable at trial.. . . 856

Rule 4532. Self-authentication of newspapers and periodicals of general circulation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

Rule 4532-a. Admissibility of graphic, numerical, symbolic or pictorial representations of medical or diagnostic tests.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

Rule 4533. Market reports.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

Rule 4533-a. Prima facie proof of damages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

Rule 4533-b. Proof of payment by joint tort-feasor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

Rule 4534. Standard of measurement used by surveyor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

Rule 4536. Proof of writing by comparison of handwriting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

Rule 4537. Proof of writing subscribed by witness.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

Rule 4538. Acknowledged, proved or certified writing; conveyance of real property without the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

Rule 4539. Reproductions of original.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

Rule 4540. Authentication of official record of court or government office in the United States.. . . . . 859

Rule 4541. Proof of proceedings before justice of the peace.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860

Rule 4542. Proof of foreign records and documents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861

§ 4543. Proof of facts or writing by methods other than those authorized in this article.. . . . . . . . . . . 861

§ 4544. Contracts in small print.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862

§ 4545. Admissibility of collateral source of payment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862

§ 4546. Loss of earnings and impairment of earning ability in actions for medical, dental or podiatric malpractice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866

§ 4547. Compromise and offers to compromise.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866

§ 4548. Privileged communications; electronic communication thereof.. . . . . . . . . 867

 

ARTICLE 50

JUDGMENTS GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869

§ 5001. Interest to verdict, report or decision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .870

§ 5002. Interest from verdict, report or decision to judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874

§ 5003. Interest upon judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876

§ 5003-a. Prompt payment following settlement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878

§ 5004. Rate of interest.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879

§ 5011. Definition and content of judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882

Rule 5012. Judgment upon part of cause of action; upon several causes.. . . . . . . . .883

Rule 5013. Effect of judgment dismissing claim.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883

§ 5014. Action upon judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883

Rule 5015. Relief from judgment or order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884

Rule 5016. Entry of judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919

Rule 5017. Judgment-roll.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821

§ 5018. Docketing of judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921

§ 5019. Validity and correction of judgment or order; amendment of docket.. . . . . 923

§ 5020. Satisfaction-piece.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925

§ 5020-a. Payment of judgment in certain cases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925

§ 5021. Entry of satisfaction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .926

 

ARTICLE 50-A

PERIODIC PAYMENT OF JUDGMENTS IN MEDICAL ANDDENTAL MALPRACTICE ACTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . 928

§ 5031. Basis for determining judgment to be entered.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928

§ 5032. Form of security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930

§ 5033. Posting and maintaining security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930

§ 5034. Failure to make payment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930

§ 5036. Adjustment of payments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931

§ 5037. Settlements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931

§ 5038. Assignment of periodic installments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931

§ 5039. Duties of superintendent of insurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931

 

ARTICLE 50-B

PERIODIC PAYMENT OF JUDGMENTS IN PERSONAL INJURY,INJURY TO PROPERTY AND WRONGFUL DEATH ACTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932

§ 5041. Basis for determining judgment to be entered.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932

§ 5042. Form of security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934

§ 5043. Posting and maintaining security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934

§ 5044. Failure to make payment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934

§ 5045. Effect of death of judgment creditor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934

§ 5046. Adjustment of payments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935

§ 5047. Settlements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935

§ 5048. Assignment of periodic installments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936

§ 5049. Duties of superintendent of insurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936

 

ARTICLE 51

ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . 937

§ 5101. Enforcement of money judgment or order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937

§ 5102. Enforcement of judgment or order awarding possession of real property or a chattel.. . . . . . . 937

§ 5103. Enforcement of judgment or order directing sale of real property.. . . . . . . 938

§ 5104. Enforcement of judgment or order by contempt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938

§ 5105. Alternative enforcement of judgment or order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938

§ 5106. Appointment of receiver.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939

§ 5107. Conveyance by sheriff.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939

 

ARTICLE 52

ENFORCEMENT OF MONEY JUDGMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940

§ 5201. Debt or property subject to enforcement; proper garnishee.. . . . . . . . . . . . 943

§ 5202. Judgment creditor’s rights in personal property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945

§ 5203. Priorities and liens upon real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 946

§ 5204. Release of lien or levy upon appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948

§ 5205. Personal property exempt from application to the satisfaction of money judgments.. . . . . . . 948

§ 5206. Real property exempt from application to the satisfaction of money judgments.. . . . . . . . . . . 954

§ 5207. Enforcement involving the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956

§ 5208. Enforcement after death of judgment debtor; leave of court; extension of lien.. . . . . . . . . . . 957

§ 5209. Discharge of garnishee’s obligation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 957

§ 5210. Power of court to punish for contempt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958

§ 5211. Privilege on examination; immunity.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958

§ 5221. Where enforcement proceeding commenced.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958

§ 5222. Restraining notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959

* § 5222-a. Service of notices and forms and procedure for claim of exemption.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965

§ 5223. Disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 971

Rule 5224. Subpoena; procedure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 971

§ 5225. Payment or delivery of property of judgment debtor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975

§ 5226. Installment payment order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 982

§ 5227. Payment of debts owed to judgment debtor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983

§ 5228. Receivers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984

§ 5229. Enforcement before judgment entered.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985

§ 5230. Executions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985

§ 5231. Income execution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988

§ 5232. Levy upon personal property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 992

§ 5233. Sale of personal property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995

§ 5234. Distribution of proceeds of personal property; priorities.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996

§ 5235. Levy upon real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997

§ 5236. Sale of real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997

§ 5237. Failure of title to property sold.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999

§ 5238. Directions to the sheriff.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999

§ 5239. Proceeding to determine adverse claims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999

§ 5240. Modification or protective order; supervision of enforcement.. . . . . . . . . . 999

§ 5241. Income execution for support enforcement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999

§ 5242. Income deduction order for support enforcement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007

§ 5250. Arrest of judgment debtor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009

§ 5251. Disobedience of subpoena, restraining notice or order; false swearing; destroying notice of sale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009

§ 5252. Discrimination against employees and prospective employees based upon wage assignment or income execution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010

* § 5253. Cost of living adjustment for personal and real property exempt from application to the satisfaction of money judgments and exemptions in bankruptcy... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011

 

ARTICLE 53

RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN COUNTRY MONEY JUDGMENTSSUMMARY OF ARTICLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012

§ 5301. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012

§ 5302. Applicability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012

§ 5303. Recognition and enforcement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012

§ 5304. Grounds for non-recognition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014

§ 5305. Personal jurisdiction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017

§ 5306. Stay in case of appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018

§ 5307. Recognition in other situations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018

§ 5308. Uniformity of interpretation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018

§ 5309. Citation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018

 

ARTICLE 54

ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS ENTITLED TO FULL FAITH AND CREDIT SUMMARY OF ARTICLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019

§ 5401. Definition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019

§ 5402. Filing and status of foreign judgments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019

§ 5403. Notice of filing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019

§ 5404. Stay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019

§ 5405. Fees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020

§ 5406. Optional procedure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020

§ 5407. Uniformity of interpretation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020

§ 5408. Citation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020

 

ARTICLE 55

APPEALS GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021

§ 5501. Scope of review.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1022

§ 5511. Permissible appellant and respondent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031

§ 5512. Appealable paper; entry of order made out of court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031

§ 5513. Time to take appeal, cross-appeal or move for permission to appeal.. . . . 1031

§ 5514. Extension of time to take appeal or to move for permission to appeal.. . . 1033

§ 5515. Taking an appeal; notice of appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034

Rule 5516. Motion for permission to appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034

§ 5517. Subsequent orders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034

§ 5518. Preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order by appellate division.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1034

§ 5519. Stay of enforcement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034

§ 5520. Omissions; appeal by improper method.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040

Rule 5521. Preferences.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041

Rule 5522. Disposition of appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041

§ 5523. Restitution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041

Rule 5524. Entry of order; remittitur and further proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1042

Rule 5525. Preparation and settlement of transcript; statement in lieu of transcript.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1042

Rule 5526. Content and form of record on appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043

Rule 5527. Statement in lieu of record on appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044

Rule 5528. Content of briefs and appendices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044

Rule 5529. Form of briefs and appendices.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045

Rule 5530. Filing record and briefs; service of briefs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045

Rule 5531. Description of action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046

Rule 5532. Stipulation in lieu of certification.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046

 

ARTICLE 56

APPEALS TO THE COURT OF APPEALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047

§ 5601. Appeals to the court of appeals as of right.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047

§ 5602. Appeals to the court of appeals by permission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048

§ 5611. When appellate division order deemed final.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048

§ 5612. Presumptions as to determinations of questions of fact.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1049

§ 5613. Disposition upon reversal or modification.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1049

§ 5614. Disposition upon certified questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1049

§ 5615. Disposition upon appeal from order granting new trial or hearing.. . . . . . 1049

 

ARTICLE 57

APPEALS TO THE APPELLATE DIVISION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050

§ 5701. Appeals to appellate division from supreme and county courts.. . . . . . . . 1050

§ 5702. Appeals to appellate division from other courts of original instance.. . . . 1051

§ 5703. Appeals to appellate division from appellate courts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051

§ 5704. Review of ex parte orders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051

§ 5711. Where appeal heard.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051

§ 5712. Content of order determining appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1052

§ 5713. Content of order granting permission to appeal to court of appeals.. . . . . 1052

 

ARTICLE 60

PROVISIONAL REMEDIES GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1053

§ 6001. Kinds of provisional remedies; when remedy available to defendant.. . . . 1053

 

ARTICLE 62

ATTACHMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054

§ 6201. Grounds for attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054

§ 6202. Debt or property subject to attachment; proper garnishee.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1059

§ 6203. Attaching creditor’s rights in personal property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060

§ 6204. Discharge of garnishee’s obligation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060

§ 6210. Order of attachment on notice; temporary restraining order; contents.. . . 1060

§ 6211. Order of attachment without notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061

Rule 6212. Motion papers; undertaking; filing; demand; damages.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1063

§ 6213. Service of summons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065

§ 6214. Levy upon personal property by service of order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065

§ 6215. Levy upon personal property by seizure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066

§ 6216. Levy upon real property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066

§ 6217. Additional undertaking to carrier garnishee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067

§ 6218. Sheriff’s duties after levy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067

§ 6219. Garnishee’s statement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067

§ 6220. Disclosure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067

§ 6221. Proceedings to determine adverse claims.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067

§ 6222. Discharge of attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1068

§ 6223. Vacating or modifying attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1068

§ 6224. Annulment of attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1070

§ 6225. Return of property; directions to clerk and sheriff.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1070

§ 6226. Disposition of attached property after execution issued; priority of orders of attachment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1070

 

ARTICLE 63

INJUNCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071

§ 6301. Grounds for preliminary injunction and temporary restraining order.. . . . 1071

§ 6311. Preliminary injunction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107

§ Rule 6312. Motion papers; undertaking; issues of fact.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108

§ 6313. Temporary restraining order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110

§ 6314. Vacating or modifying preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1114

§ 6315. Ascertaining damages sustained by reason of preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116

§ 6330. Obscene prints and articles; jurisdiction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117

 

ARTICLE 64

RECEIVERSHIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119

§ 6401. Appointment and powers of temporary receiver.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119

§ 6402. Oath.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122

§ 6403. Undertaking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122

§ 6404. Accounts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122

§ 6405. Removal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122

 

ARTICLE 65

NOTICE OF PENDENCY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123

§ 6501. Notice of pendency; constructive notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123

Rule 6511. Filing, content and indexing of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127

§ 6512. Service of summons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128

§ 6513. Duration of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128

§ 6514. Motion for cancellation of notice of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1130

§ 6515. Undertaking for cancellation of notice of pendency; security by plaintiff.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135

§ 6516. Successive notices of pendency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137

 

ARTICLE 70

HABEAS CORPUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138

§ 7001. Application of article; special proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138

§ 7002. Petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139

§ 7003. When the writ shall be issued.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143

§ 7004. Content of writ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143

§ 7005. Service of the writ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144

§ 7006. Obedience to the writ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144

§ 7007. Warrant preceding or accompanying writ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

§ 7008. Return.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

§ 7009. Hearing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145

§ 7010. Determination of proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146

§ 7011. Appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148

§ 7012. Redetention after discharge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1149

 

ARTICLE 71

RECOVERY OF CHATTEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1150

§ 7101. When action may be brought.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1150

§ 7102. Seizure of chattel on behalf of plaintiff.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153

§ 7103. Reclaiming, impounding or returning chattel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155

§ 7104. Seizing, reclaiming or returning less than all chattels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156

§ 7105. Sale of perishable property.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156

§ 7106. Payment of sheriff’s fees and expenses; liability of sheriff.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1156

§ 7107. Sheriff’s return.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1157

§ 7108. Judgment; execution in certain cases; enforcement by contempt.. . . . . . . 1157

§ 7109. Unique chattel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1157

§ 7110. Sheriff’s powers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1158

§ 7111. Action on undertaking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1158

§ 7112. Testimony by deposition to ascertain location of chattel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1158

 

ARTICLE 72

RECOVERY OF PENALTY OR FORFEITURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159

§ 7201. Action by state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159

§ 7202. Action by person aggrieved.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159

§ 7203. Action by common informer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159

§ 7204. Recovery of part of penalty or forfeiture.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1160

§ 7205. Defense of good faith reliance on judicial decision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1160

 

ARTICLE 75

ARBITRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161

§ 7501. Effect of arbitration agreement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161

§ 7502. Applications to the court; venue; statutes of limitation; provisional remedies.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1173

§ 7503. Application to compel or stay arbitration; stay of action; notice of intention to arbitrate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180

§ 7504. Court appointment of arbitrator.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1209

§ 7505. Powers of arbitrator.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1209

§ 7506. Hearing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1209

§ 7507. Award; form; time; delivery.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212

§ 7508. Award by confession.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1213

§ 7509. Modification of award by arbitrator.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1213

§ 7510. Confirmation of award.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214

§ 7511. Vacating or modifying award.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1226

§ 7512. Death or incompetency of a party.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1247

§ 7513. Fees and expenses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1247

§ 7514. Judgment on an award.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1247

 

ARTICLE 75-A

HEALTH CARE ARBITRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249

§ 7550. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249

§ 7551. Applicability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249

§ 7552. Health care arbitration proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249

§ 7553. Costs of the proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250

§ 7554. Selection of arbitrators.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250

§ 7555. Screening for bias; communication with arbitrator candidates.. . . . . . . . . 1251

§ 7556. Demand for arbitration; minors; consolidation of proceedings.. . . . . . . . 1251

§ 7557. Reparation offers; denials of liability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252

§ 7558. Depositions and discovery; rules of the arbitration administrator; adjournments.. . . . . . . . . 1252

§ 7559. Hearing; evidence; record; neutral experts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252

§ 7560. Subpoenas.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252

§ 7561. Use of depositions; enforcement of discovery procedures.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1252

§ 7562. Witnesses’ fees and mileage; arbitrators’ fees and expenses.. . . . . . . . . . 1253

§ 7563. Briefs; award; decision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253

§ 7564. Form of decision; costs upon frivolous claims and counterclaims.. . . . . . 1253

§ 7565. Modification and judicial review of decision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253

 

ARTICLE 76

PROCEEDING TO ENFORCE AGREEMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF ISSUE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254

§ 7601. Special proceeding to enforce agreement that issue or controversy be determined by a person named or to be selected.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254

 

ARTICLE 77

PROCEEDING RELATING TO EXPRESS TRUST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255

§ 7701. Special proceeding relating to express trust.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255

§ 7702. Verified account accompanying petition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255

§ 7703. Joinder and representation of persons interested in trust property.. . . . . . 1255

§ 7704. Reference.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256

§ 7705. Recording or filing instrument settling account.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256

§ 7706. Order on filing instrument settling account.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256

 

ARTICLE 78

PROCEEDING AGAINST BODY OR OFFICER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257

§ 7801. Nature of proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257

§ 7802. Parties.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1271

§ 7803. Questions raised.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1273

§ 7804. Procedure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1361

§ 7805. Stay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1372

§ 7806. Judgment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373

 

ARTICLE 80

FEES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374

§ 8001. Persons subpoenaed; examination before trial; transcripts of records.. . . 1375

§ 8002. Stenographers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376

§ 8003. Referees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376

§ 8004. Commissions of receivers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377

§ 8005. Commissions of trustees; advance payment of fees of an attorney-trustee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378

§ 8006. Premiums on undertakings by fiduciaries.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378

§ 8007. Printers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378

§ 8008. Fees and expenses of officer to be paid before transmission of paper.. . . .1379

§ 8009. Oaths; acknowledgments; certification or exemplification.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1379

§ 8010. County treasurers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379

§ 8011. Fixed fees of sheriffs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1380

§ 8012. Mileage fees, poundage fees, additional compensation, and limitation on compensation of sheriffs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1383

§ 8013. Expenses of sheriffs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384

§ 8014. Collection of sheriff’s fees on execution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384

§ 8015. County clerk where sheriff is a party or otherwise disqualified.. . . . . . . . 1384

§ 8016. Clerks of courts of record generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1385

§ 8017. Exemption of the state and counties, and agencies and officers thereof, from fees of clerks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1385

§ 8018. Index number fees of county clerks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1385

§ 8019. County clerks generally.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387

§ 8020. County clerks as clerks of court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388

§ 8021. County clerks other than as clerks of court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389

§ 8022. Fee on civil appeals proceedings before appellate courts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1394

 

ARTICLE 81

COSTS GENERALLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395

§ 8101. Costs in an action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395

§ 8102. Limitation of costs where action brought in higher court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396

§ 8103. Costs where parties prevail upon separate issues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396

§ 8104. Costs in consolidated, severed or removed action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396

§ 8105. Costs where more than one plaintiff or defendant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396

§ 8106. Costs upon motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396

§ 8107. Costs upon appeal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397

§ 8108. Specification of denial or award of costs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397

§ 8109. Defendant’s costs against the state.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397

§ 8110. Costs against a fiduciary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397

 

ARTICLE 82

AMOUNT OF COSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398

§ 8201. Amount of costs in an action.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398

§ 8202. Amount of costs on motion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398

§ 8203. Amount of costs on appeal to appellate division and appellate term.. . . . 1398

§ 8204. Amount of costs on appeal to the court of appeals.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399

 

ARTICLE 83

DISBURSEMENTS AND ADDITIONAL ALLOWANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400

§ 8301. Taxable disbursements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400

§ 8302. Additional allowance to plaintiff as of right in real property actions.. . . . 1402

§ 8303. Additional allowance in the discretion of the court.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402

§ 8303-a. Costs upon frivolous claims and counterclaims in actions to recover damages for personal injury, injury to property or wrongful death.. . . . . 1403

 

ARTICLE 84

TAXATION OF COSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405

§ 8401. Computation by clerk.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405

§ 8402. Taxation with notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405

§ 8403. Taxation without notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405

§ 8404. Judicial review of taxation or retaxation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405

 

ARTICLE 85

SECURITY FOR COSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1406

§ 8501. Security for costs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1406

§ 8502. Stay and dismissal on failure to give security.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1406

§ 8503. Undertaking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407

 

ARTICLE 86          

COUNSEL FEES AND EXPENSES IN CERTAIN ACTIONS AGAINST THE STATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1408

§ 8600. Intent and short title.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1408

§ 8601. Fees and other expenses in certain actions against the state.. . . . . . . . . . . 1408

§ 8602. Definitions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1409

§ 8603. Interest.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410

§ 8604. Annual report.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410

§ 8605. Applicability.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410

 

ARTICLE 90

FAILURE OR ADJOURNMENT OF TERM OF COURT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411

Rule 9001. No abatement by failure, adjournment, or change of time or place of term of court.. . . . 1411

Rule 9002. Death, disability or incapacity of judge following verdict, report, decision, or determination of motion or special proceeding.. . . . . . . . . . 1411

Rule 9003. Running of time when county judge disqualified from acting in a case.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411

 

ARTICLE 94

ADMISSION TO PRACTICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412

Rule 9401. Committee.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412

Rule 9402. Application for admission.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412

Rule 9403. Referral to another judicial district.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412

Rule 9404. Certificate of character and fitness.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413

Rule 9405. Prior application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413

Rule 9406. Proof.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414

Rule 9407. Filing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414

 

ARTICLE 97

RECORDS OF CLERKS OF THE COURTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415

Rule 9701. Records to be kept by the clerk of appellate division.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415

Rule 9702. Books to be kept by the clerks of other courts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415

Rule 9703. Form of records.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1416

 

ARTICLE 98

ACTIONS AGAINST VILLAGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417

§ 9801. Actions against the village.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417

§ 9802. Liability of villages in certain actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417

§ 9803. Place of trial of actions and proceedings against villages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417

§ 9804. Notice of defects in certain actions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417

 

ARTICLE 100

REPEAL; SAVING CLAUSES; EFFECTIVE DATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418

§ 10001. Repeal of the civil practice act.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418

§ 10002. Abrogation of rules of civil practice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418

§ 10003. Pending and subsequent proceedings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418

§ 10004. Effect of unconstitutionality in part.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418

§ 10005. Effective date.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418

 

PART II ADDITIONAL CASES

Judgments Generally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1421

Res judicata.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1421

Collateral estoppel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440

Law of case doctrine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1459

Equitable estoppel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1461

Judicial estoppel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1465

Issue preclusion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470

Provisional remedies generally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472

Constructive trusts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472

Laches... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1479

 

Index

Alphabetical index of statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485